Presentation on theme: "5/2/2015 Observations from a decade inside: Policing cultures and evidence based policing Professor Betsy Stanko Metropolitan Police Service/Royal Holloway,"— Presentation transcript:
5/2/2015 Observations from a decade inside: Policing cultures and evidence based policing Professor Betsy Stanko Metropolitan Police Service/Royal Holloway, University of London October 2011 SIPR Annual Lecture
5/2/2015 This presentation… First, explores ‘what is evidence’ in the ‘what works’ policing discussions?;
5/2/2015 Second, argues that the evidence for confidence in policing suggests that we keep the legitimacy of policing in the forefront of our work;
5/2/2015 Then offers A view that systematic research offers other forms of evidence for change, drawing on insight from a seven year tracker of rape allegations
5/2/2015 And finally considers how the above requires improvement from the inside, by continuously challenging neo-tribal resistance to outside/outsider evidence
5/2/2015 Over the past decade ‘what works’… Offers accumulated knowledge and shows that there are replicable strategies to reduce crime (the policing of problems places for example can reap sustainable reduction) Demonstrates that there are benefits of problem solving people’s problems – crime, anti social behaviour, quality of life and public confidence.
5/2/2015 A LOOK AT PUBLIC CONFIDENCE
5/2/2015 Bridging procedural justice model with police improvement Confidence in Policing Perception of how well the police are: responding to emergencies, tackling and preventing crime, supporting victims and witnesses, providing a visible presence and policing public events Views that the police are: committed to and engaged with the community, by listening, understanding and dealing with their concerns, Are reliable People feel that the police are: fair and treat them with respect, regardless of who they are or the reason for contact helpful, friendly and approachable People perceive that there has been a decrease in local disorder and ASB, e.g. noisy/nuisance neighbours, teenagers hanging around, drinking in the street and vandalism Information about local policing activities shapes Public Opinion Effectiveness in dealing with crime Engagement with the community Fair treatment Alleviating Local ASB MPS model of confidence
5/2/2015 Worry about crime Alleviating local ASB Effectiveness in dealing with crime Fair treatmentEngagement with the community Confidence Model: the drivers explained Influence of key drivers
5/2/2015 People experience local crime and local problems differently Yet, despite diversity of local people, opinions tend to converge around what and where the ‘most serious’ local problems are perceived to be. Serious and organised crime – locally specific to key areas in London; certain people know where it happens in their localities; over the years there has been no or little change in people’s perceptions about the existence of this kind of crime locally in London. Volume and violent crime – some evidence of locally specific, however little variation across wards about how volume crime is distributed across London. Incivilities – widespread concern across all the wards, but not locally specific; generally linked to people’s feelings about decline of social cohesion and sharing values with their neighbours. Source: MPS Safer Neighbourhoods Survey
5/2/2015 Do not underestimate the value of legitimacy …higher levels of public trust are linked to more positive policing/justice outcomes
5/2/2015 Think continuously about how to maximise public cooperation… Fair treatment and co operation with police – Evidence suggests that detections often arise through information provided by victims and witnesses – Those who believe in state legitimacy are more willing to comply with law (Tyler) – Less likely to be willing to use violence outside the law (Bradford, Jackson, Tyler, Aziz)
5/2/2015 Public Confidence can be influenced Local information is a form of direct contact. MPS data tells us that an MPS leaflet is the most preferred form of finding out about local policing. Direct effort to inform local people about police activity improves confidence (Hohl et al 2010) Fair and respectful treatment predicts whether the public viewed the police as legitimate (Myhill and Quinton 2011)
5/2/2015 Confidence in Local and London-wide Policing (MPS PAS 09/10-11/12 Rolling 12 month data)
5/2/2015 London 2011, a disorder with bystanders… A crisis in legitimacy?
And when cooperation breaks down
Those who believe in state legitimacy are more willing to comply with law (Tyler) less likely to be willing to use violence outside the law (Bradford, Jackson, Tyler, Aziz)
5/2/2015 A LOOK AT VICTIM CENTRED EVIDENCE: RAPE IN LONDON
5/2/2015 Reported rape in London over 6 years suggests the consistent appearance of the 'un-real' (Estrich 1987) victim The vast majority of those who report rape to the MPS can be considered to be vulnerable in some way or other (87% in 2005; 84% in 2010). One third victims who report rape are aged below 18 at the time of the offence (33% in 2005; 34% in 2010) One in six of victims who report rape have a mental health issue (18% in 2005; 14% in 2010) One third of victims who report rape have consumed alcohol / drugs prior to the rape (35% in 2005; 35% in 2010) One quarter of victims who report rape are or have been in an intimate relationship with their assailant (24% in 2005; 26% in 2010)
5/2/2015 Change and continuity SRAU, SID, DOR 22
5/2/2015 Police practice has changed, as key attrition points show differences over time More allegations are classified as crime (67% in 2005; 91% in 2010) More suspects are identified (53% in 2005; 72% in 2010) More suspects are arrested (39% in 2005; 53% in 2010) Fewer suspects are charged (44% of all arrested suspects in 2005; 26% of all arrested suspects in 2010) Once charged, more suspects are convicted (31% in 2005; 44% in 2010) Overall outcome: In % of all allegations lead to a conviction. In 2010, it is 6%.
5/2/2015 Investigate exploitation of vulnerability There continues to be a wide gap between rape that ‘happens’ to people who report to the police and the number of these allegations that lead (or not) to a finding of guilty of rape in a criminal court This ‘justice gap’ has not significantly improved despite a significant change in the allocation of resources
5/2/2015 After a decade working inside the police, I think internal change is slow… Thinking about evidence as a (social) scientist is at a slow creep inside policing
5/2/2015 Evidence and policing culture… knowing you, knowing me As a non uniformed ‘professor’ I have insisted that analysis of ‘what police know’ be robust Yet the analysis is only successful in sparking a different way of working when a senior uniformed sponsor has used the analysis in decision making
5/2/2015 Features of police culture Police scholars and fiction writers have comments on how uniformed officers 'behave, think, act' Studied Behaviours have achieved a 'folklore': use of force, coercion, racism, sexism, anti intellectualism, corruption, biased law enforcement, secrecy, exclusivity, loyalty to each other, brotherhood, guarded trust, competitive, authoritarian, entitled, bullying, abusive, good humoured, brave, helpful, reliable, selfless…….
5/2/2015 Using conceptual evidence to impact the ‘doing’ of policing requires shifting the way ‘we do things here’ Using the two examples set out here reconceptualising confidence locating rape victims along a continuum of vulnerability
5/2/2015 Uniformed world view Affects the way 'evidence' verified by those outside is accepted, incorporated as a core part of improvement Evidence is not only the way one adapts to 'turning right or left out of the station' Evidence presented here requires changing the way one 'sees' and one does things
5/2/2015 Confidence: Moving beyond the uniform to understand public need Still much work to do to break out of the ‘shield of police culture’ Requires breaking the traditional hold that policing cultures have on a ‘uniformed’ understanding of the world Must be an active transition/translation, Must require ‘acting’ and feeling like a citizen, but does happen easily (in my experience)
5/2/2015 Novel? approach to investigation of rape Investigate knowing that there is likely to be a presumption that the victim is vulnerable; Investigate the offender to explore whether (and how) the assailant exploited vulnerability; Continually facing external social resistance to criminal justice outcomes for rape victims
5/2/2015 Yet… Crossing continents, crossing worlds, bridging, translating, challenging both, With humour, respect, impatience, and optimism