Presentation on theme: "14-2 The Movement Gains Ground. Student Activists Make a Difference Change was slow Young African Americans became more determined. Sit-ins challenged."— Presentation transcript:
Student Activists Make a Difference Change was slow Young African Americans became more determined. Sit-ins challenged segregation a form of protest where participants sit and refuse to move 4 African American college students ordered doughnuts and coffee at a Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960 and were refused.
In Harlem and many other northern communities, Movement supporters picket Woolworths and other chain stores to support the southern sit-ins. Rather than serve African Americans, this Walgreen's lunch- counter closes "in the interests of public safety." Other cafes and lunch- counters call the cops to arrest Blacks for the crime of ordering a cup of coffee in defiance of the segregation laws. Sit-ins occur across the nation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xbbcjn4d1cE
Other forms of protest Wade-ins at public beaches Read-ins at libraries Activists carried picket signs Wrote letters to newspapers Wrote letters to government officials
SNCC PROMOTES NON VIOLENT PROTEST Ella Baker forms the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Too slow Moral issue Goal: create a new movement that involved all classes of African Americans to defeat racism.
Riding for Freedom http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/
What Next? Marches, Sit-ins, Wade-ins, Picketing, boycotting buses, letters to government, letters to newspapers? What other forms of Protests might have been practiced?
Freedom Ride What do you think it means? Predict how freedom rides might encourage the federal government to address the Civil Rights issues?
Riding for Freedom Interstate = between states Activists targeted interstate transportation Travel between the states regulated by THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT! Activists are testing the fed’s willingness to enforce the law –Boynton V Virgina (Supreme Court rules segregation on interstate buses illegal)
Freedom Riders Face Angry Mobs CORE stages a “freedom ride” through the south. 2 separate buses from Washington D.C. to New Orleans. En route they defied segregation codes ? How will pro-segregationists respond?
Prosegregationists firebombed one bus. When the second bus arrives a white mob attacked the riders.
President Kennedy Takes Action to stop the violence Police & state troopers agree to protect the riders. Federal Transportation Commission mandates desegregation of interstate transportation. *goal No intervention when Mississippi arrests the riders for disturbing the peace.
Checkpoint What did the freedom rides accomplish? -Desegregation of interstate transportation -Showed intimidation would not stop activists http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyeson theprize/resources/vid/05_video_riders _ra.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyeso ntheprize/story/05_riders.html
Protest & Confrontations Intensify Protesters put pressure on the federal government to end legal segregation. (de jure) NAACP supports James Meredith in enrolling in University of Mississippi. Ole Miss ordered by federal government to desegregate with the help of Medgar Evans Stand off between governor and the federal government. A riot erupts – federal marshals battle white protestors 160 injured and 2 dead
Kennedy Addresses the Nation American’s are free... To disagree with the law but not to disobey it. For any government of laws..., no man, however prominent & powerful... Is entitled to defy a court of law.”
King Campaigns in Birmingham Birmingham = most segregated city in the south King is jailed and then released Demonstrations increase Children join “freedom marches” Video – Children’s March Americans are shocked and call on President to react.
Kennedy Back Civil Rights Declared that the nation had an obligation to “fulfill its promise” of giving all Americans “equal rights and equal opportunities.” Sends to Congress a proposal for Civil Rights legislation
The Century – Poisoned Dreams http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBa26peu g8I 1 of 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EBa26peu g8I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4l9RDib3 IE&feature=watch_response 2 of 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4l9RDib3 IE&feature=watch_response http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNvjbVP3 1D0 3 of 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNvjbVP3 1D0
Checkpoint How did Meredith & King prompt Kennedy to promote civil rights? Kennedy saw the violence after Meredith and insist laws be obeyed. King’s letter from jail persuaded Kennedy to send legislation to Congress
14-2 March on Washington Pressure on Congress to pass civil rights bills. NAACP, SCLC, SNCC, labor unions, and religious groups. 250,000 demonstrators VERY PEACEFUL Largest demonstration in D.C. ever TV Coverage
Who? The "Big Six" organizers were James Farmer, of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Martin Luther King, Jr., of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) John Lewis, of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) A. Philip Randolph, of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; Roy Wilkins, of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Whitney Young, Jr., of the National Urban League.
What? The stated demands of the march were – the passage of meaningful civil rights legislation – the elimination of racial segregation in public schools – protection for demonstrators against police brutality – a major public-works program to provide jobs – the passage of a law prohibiting racial discrimination in public and private hiring – $2 an hour minimum wage – self-government for the District of Columbia, which had a black majority.
1.Rally at the Washington Monument 2. Marched along the mile-long area of the National Mall towards the Lincoln Memorial. 3. Three-hour program -National Anthem; remarks from A. Philip Randolph, Mrs. Medgar Evers, Rabbi Uri Miller, and Roy Wilkins, speech by Martin Luther King Jr. 4. Following the march and program, the day’s scheduled activities ended in a meeting between the leaders of the march and President Kennedy at the White House
Calling for a peaceful, self- disciplined gathering, the organizers asked participants “to resist provocations to disorder and violence” so that “no one in our own ranks, however, enthusiastic, shall be the spark for disorder.” The back of the program also included a listing of the demands being sought as a result of the demonstration.
King delivers speech “I Have a Dream” http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=3992238n
Check Point Why was the March on Washington a good place to demonstrate? What is considered the highlight of the march? Washington is the site of the US government which has the power to pass new laws to protect the rights of African Americans The “I Have a Dream” speech by Martin Luther King Jr.
WHICH WOULD YOU CHOOSE? What are the pros and cons of each? Peaceful Protest Picketing Wade-ins Sit-insRead-ins Letters to newspaper Letters to government Marches
What would you have heard? What would you have seen? What would you be thinking? What would you emotionally be feeling? What would it physically feel like? What would it smell like? What words would you be saying?
Divide up into groups based on the type of protest you would participate in. As a group, brainstorm what this person might be going through. Group Sheet Group Sheet – each person must complete.
Pick one of the peaceful forms of protest practiced by SNCC. Write a one page paper convincing others to join you in your protest. Just as the SNCC would have prepared you to be non violent – prepare others with what they might see, hear, feel emotionally, feel physically. Answer the following questions, using the words you brainstormed as a group. Paragraph #1 – What are the goals of the SNCC (see your notes) What form of protest are you doing / what are you asking others to do? Paragraph #2 - Prepare your reader for what they will see, smell, hear. Prepare your reader for what they will feel physically & emotionally Prepare your reader for what they should say to themselves / to others Paragraph #3 - Why are you doing this? Why is this important? Repeat the goals of the SNCC and how you hope to accomplish them (form of protest).