Romans of course had slavery: How was it different from what Americans think of as slavery?
By 800’s Europe had moved to a serf system rather than purchasing more slaves. They just made them part of the land they owned.
Were used for: skilled workers house labor concubines little friends for rich kids! As plague killed off population, Italians reintroduced slavery From Slavic areas (Slave) and Africans
By 1400’s Italians free their slaves for humanitarian reasons even though Venice had become wealthy from the trade
Contributing also to Italy ending trade: *Turks had blocked access to black Sea so Eastern Europe access blocked
But then… *Portugese take over the trade and it is based in Africa
As frontiers change, the treatment of the minorities change At first movement in Europe to escape plague led to legal dualism
Great example would be the Mudejars in Spain, the Muslim subjects of Christian monarchs. Allowed to be judged under Muslim law.
English are exception to the rule with the Irish Harsh discrimination in society No wills No felony for murder of Irishman
Legal Dualism ends because of competition for church and government positions as areas rebuild in 1400’s and behave more like developing nations
Blood line and language begin to matter Racism emerges in areas which had coexisted East Europe: Damlimil Chronicle Ireland: Statute of Kilkenny German purity concept to not mix with marriage and to gain top jobs Spain against Mudejars and Jews
With exploration racism grows in colonial territories
Motivation to explore Economic: precious metals and spices and new areas of trade. Because Turks were blocking route to the East they were looking for a quicker way to go East.
Religion Henry the Navigator was interested in “desire to make increase in the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ and to bring him all the souls that should be saved” Cortes taking Mexico believed it was their duty to ensure that Mexicans “are introduced into and instructed in The holy Catholic faith”
Because they could European monarchs had more money and more authority by 15 th to 16 th Century and were looking to expand and able to fund
Technology Maps getting better as more voyages went on. Technology better with the rudder from China, caravels were smaller and faster, compass and astrolabe, better understanding of the winds
Use of allies since neighbors hated Aztecs for obvious reasons
Racism, Schism, Exploration, War feeds into efforts at centralization of Empire England Spain France Holy Roman Empire…good luck Italy doesn’t and weakens itself in the process
England Centralized under monarch by 1500 Henry VII appealed to a minute middle class to control peasants and aristocrats. Used the Star Chamber to silence nobles, the royal council to administer national policy and unpaid justices of the peace to control local government. Provided stability which allowed for trade which made the middle class happy. Avoided war which bypassed Parliament since didn’t need to ask for money. Unknowingly this will pave the road for a more powerful House of Commons, weaker king and nobles and growing industrial global economy.
Spain Not centralized until 1700 Ferdinand and Isabella also had a council of middle class which served the same purpose as England’s royal council. Also had justices of peace called hermandades to control the local governments. Negotiated with the pope to have the power to appoint bishops in Spain which enriched the monarchy and allowed them to expel Jews and Muslims. At first allowed “New Christians” then got more fanatical (inquisition) Unknowingly this will harm the economy and government as skilled people are lost.
France Centralized around 1500 Charles VII and then Louis XI also had a council of middle class which served the same purpose as England’s and France’s royal council. Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges gave French crown control and wealth over the Church. Gabelle and taille raised taxes on salt and land. An army paid for with increased trade and high taxes controlled the peasants. Unknowingly set the stage for the French Revolution where a lot of angry middle class and peasant folks rise up against the monarchy for more economic and political control.
Holy Roman Empire Confusing. Can’t unify. Too big. Does split between Spain and Central Europe so Spain centralizes but Central Europe continues to fall apart, even more so once Protestants happen.
Italy Used the same tactics as other nations but were city-states and competed against each other for territory including the Pope. Did try to maintain a balance of power by ganging up on each other if one city looked too powerful. This situation was very inviting to foreigners so France and Austria take their lands. (Habsburg- Valois wars) Won’t unify until 1870