Presentation on theme: "Fernando Nunes, PhD Assistant Professor"— Presentation transcript:
1Cultural maintenance, community involvement and schooling amongst Portuguese-Canadian youth Fernando Nunes, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Child & Youth StudyMount Saint Vincent UniversityHalifax, Nova ScotiaPresented at:16 International Metropolis ConferenceMigration Futures: Perspectives on Global ChangesPonta Delgada, Açores, PortugalSeptember 14, 2011Funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
2Portuguese-Canadians Approximately 411,000Stable, established communityLevels of poverty lower than averageHigh levels of home ownershipOne of the groups that is least likely to report racism(sources: Matas & Valentine, (2000); Nunes, (1998, 2003); Ornstein, (2006); Statistics Canada, 2006 Census, catalogue no XCB )
3Portuguese-Canadian challenges Concentrated in unskilled construction, manufacturing and service occupationsSignificantly lower average incomesDisproportionately fewer individuals earning in upper income bracketsLowest education levels of any minority, including the First-NationsLittle representation in major political, cultural and economic institutionsGenerally ignored by mainstream Canadian societySources: Matas & Valentine, (2000); Nunes, (1998, 2003; 2004, 2005); Ornstein, (2006); Santos, (2004); Statistics Canada, 2006 Census, catalogue no XCB
4Luso-Canadians and the Dropout Problem Entering into 3rd Canadian-born generationProportionately more youth than Canadian averageDropping out in disproportionate numbersEvidence from Ontario, Quebec & B.C.Highest dropout rate in Toronto (2005) (43%)Predominantly a male phenomenonCommunity concerned with social reproduction of youth in parents’ marginalized socioeconomic roleSources: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census, catalogue no XCB ;Toronto Board of Education Reports from 1970 to 2004; Brown, (2006); Giles (2002); Nunes, (1998, 2004, 2005); Ornstein, (2006); Santos, (2004).
5Popular Explanations for Portuguese-Canadian Dropout Parents don’t value educationParents don’t get involved in schoolLack the proper cultural resourcesHome environment doesn’t support reading, writingPejorative - Cultural deprivationWeak academic skillsPejorative - Lack of intellectual capacityLack of self confidenceCultural dualityExistential confusion leading to conflicting goals, dreams, etc.Lack of role modelsLack of family and community tradition in post-secondary educationDiscriminatory school system practices & barriersEx. StreamingEx. High cost of post-secondary educationIf you note, the two major causes all point to the supposed negative influence of the Portuguese culture, on students’ ambitions and achievement.Source: Nunes, F. (2004). “Portuguese-Canadian Youth and Their Academic Underachievement: A Literature Review.” Portuguese-Studies Review 11, 2, p ; Nunes, F. (1996). Portuguese-Canadians from Sea to Sea. Toronto: Portuguese-Canadian National Congress.
6Academic Approaches Supporting the Importance of Traditional Attitudes Caste theory (Theory of Castelike minorities) (Ogbu, 1978, 1987)Some minority groups have developed traditional attitudes that portray education as irrelevant or unachievable (ex. Blacks, Natives, Mexicans)Have developed “folk-theories of success” that embody alternate paths to success (ex. Manual labour, sports, music, illicit drugs)Anti-racism Education Theory (Dei, 1996)Educational policies and practices are Euro-centric and White-centricPerpetuate and mirror inequality of wider society, against people of colourThe Portuguese, as White Europeans, are not recognized as suffering the same racist barriersDropout is then due to other factors (cultural tradition?)Critical Pedagogy (McLaren, 1986)Teachers see themselves as engaged in the task of “civilizing” Portuguese- Canadian students, by ridding them of their “mideaval” cultural normsSome of these theories support the notion that blame for the academic achievement issue can be placed on the effects of Traditional Culture.The first, Ogbu’s theory of Castelike Minorities states that some groups actually teach their children (by example and more explicitly) that education will be of little value in their future lives.The second, Dei’s Anti-Racism Education Theory, states that discriminatory barriers within the education system are based on Euro-centric and White-centric racist goals of the wider society. As Europeans, the Portuguese are then seen as part of the wider White majority that benefits from these racist practices. Consequently, by exclusion, there will be other explanations for Portuguese-Canadian dropout problem, such as the negative influence of traditional Portuguese society.
7The Assumption of the Negative Influence of Traditional Portuguese Culture Both popular perceptions, and some academic approaches, point to the influence of disadvantaging cultural expectations, practices, etc. in constructing the dropout problemFollowing from the above, it might be assumed that those youth who most see themselves as Portuguese, who have a greater involvement with the Luso-Canadian community and who most value Portuguese culture would display little interest in pursuing a higher education
8Portuguese-Canadian Youth Barriers and Supports Study ApproachCritical Pedagogy & Participatory ResearchPaulo Freire’s (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed21 Focus group meetingsBased on Freire’s “circulos de cultura” (culture circles, or study circles)6 in each of Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg & Vancouver50 individual interviews10 in each cityFocus group participants develop questions to be asked in interviewsPartnership with Portuguese-Canadian National CongressCommunity Advisory CommitteeFunded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
9QuestionsWhy are Portuguese-Canadian youth dropping out in disproportionate numbers?What influences have contributed to their decision regarding entering college or university?What factors have prevented Portuguese-Canadian youth from integrating fully into Canadian society?
10The Structure of Underachievement Cultural, Class & Linguistic BarriersLack of tradition of higher educationCanadian-born entering school system as non-English speakersParents unable to assist childrenLimited parental experience with education systemLack of role modelsOppositional identityLower income levelsDisparaging view of community & ethnicity (in Toronto & Montreal)School System BarriersStreamingBiased IQ testsNot eligible for ESLPoor success in teaching reading & writingNon-reflective curriculumLow teachers’ expectationsTeachers’ stereotypingLittle value placed on international languages & culturesDropout and/or failure to enter higher educationStrong Family Support SystemMediates worst consequences of dropping outProvides safety net for essentials (but not luxuries)Extensive network for securing manual labour employmentSystem of reciprocal rights & responsibilities
11Question Relating to this Presentation How does the level of involvement and interest in the Portuguese community and culture, as well as an identification with being Portuguese, compare between those youth who are entering, or not entering, post-secondary education?
12Relevant Questions Asked Are you/ How are you / involved in the Portuguese community?Is there anything about the community (or your involvement in it) which has influenced your education?Do you have Portuguese friends, with whom you “hang out” on a regular basisDo you feel Portuguese?What does being Portuguese mean to you? (also Azorean, or Madeiran, etc)Are you proud to call yourself Portuguese, Azorean, or both?How important it is for you to maintain Portuguese traditions?How often does your school discuss Portuguese history and culture?
13Portuguese FriendsMost youth in the large cities had at least one Portuguese friendIn smaller centres, Portuguese friendships depended on participation in the local clubHaving / Not having/ Portuguese friends was not necessarily seen as a prerequisite or an impediment to feeling Portuguese
14Feeling Portuguese Most youth stated that they felt “Portuguese” Most also stated equally “Canadian”Some equally “Azorean and Portuguese”Not necessarily only “Azorean”Some Azorean youth reticent to call themselves “Azorean”Possibly the result of disparaging stereotypes?(Feeling Azorean) means that we're from the islands, we're different. People say that we're the rejects of Portugal. That's not true. We're just a different breed of pork-chop.Toronto, Feb. 24, 2011 (male)Those stressing “Azorean” were often post-secondary-boundI love being Azorean. It means coming from, like, islands and tropics and sun and having all those specific cultural and historic sites in each island, or something […] I guess just because I'm not from Portugal, the continent, and I like to make sure people know, like, I'm Azorean […] I speak Portuguese, but I'm AzoreanToronto 6, August 6, 2010 (female)
15Being Portuguese Usually defined by the following: Family-related activities and get-togethersEating distinct and tasty foodWatching soccerSpeaking PortuguesePride in a rich historical traditionWell, I love everything about it, with when it comes to food, I’m constantly going out to the store and grabbing a bit of prosciutto, bringing it home. My uncle goes up to his farm, brings us chicken or something and we’ll sit there and peel its wings off or something. I don’t know, it’s kind of weird, yet kind of enjoyable, you know? And every chance we get we hop on a plane and we’re off to Portugal. It just – it’s so different from here, you know? It’s like a paradise away from hereToronto, May 18, 2011 (male)
16Pride in Being Portuguese Almost all, in interviews, said they were proud to call themselves “Portuguese”Portuguese means being Portuguese. I have Brazilian friends who tell me and I take it from them, you guys are strong people, strong people, strong blood, strong hands, hard headed and I'm proud to be PortugueseToronto Feb. 23, 2011 (male)Some in focus groups expressed a negative association with being Portuguese…the guidance councilors try to force us to not take…university prep courses… As soon as they hear that we are Portuguese they hate us. I think that they think we are stupid. One of them told me, ‘Portuguese don’t go to university. I hate them, but we do make like we are ignorant. I feel ashamed like, I feel bad to be Portuguese.”Toronto Post-Secondary-bound focus group (female)
17More Expressions of Portuguese Pride in Smaller Cities I am proud to be Portuguese… …I am the only Portuguese person in my school… …and it makes me feel like I am different. I am different, but in a good way. And it really helps me along.Halifax, post-secondary-bound 2You feel good about yourself… …after a [folklore] performance… …like you presented something, like a part of your culture…Vancouver, post-secondary-bound 3I’m in grade 11, and my dad is Portuguese, but my mom isn’t… …me and my sister, we were always more proud of our Portuguese side, I guess because we did more with that (folk dancing, Sunday dinners, etc.)Winnipeg, post-secondary-bound 1
18What creates difference? Small size of community forces more uniqueness and greater unity:The fact that there is not as many of us around… …we stick out more… …people are not used to having us around. I know that makes me want to be Portuguese even more. To show people what there really is.Halifax, post-secondary-bound 1Youth and family involvement in local associations breeds sense of family, uniquenessPeer pressure to stay in school, amongst youth in associationsSchools, teachers and community in small centres do not stigmatize Portuguese, as a groupThey have no prevailing stereotypes
19Importance of Maintaining Portuguese Traditions Most said it was important, mainly for the preservation of family lifeLess importance given by some who were not going to post-secondary educationLess important for some of Azorean backgroundI don't find it that important (to maintain traditions). My grandparents have the Mary statue with all the roses and always eating fish and chicken and soup… …but, we’re in a new age.Toronto, Feb. 24, 2011 (male)
20Different Treatment for Being Portuguese All interviewees rep0rted receiving the same opportunities as other youth or, at least, other minoritiesNone report having been treated differentlyOne Toronto youth said “I didn’t realize we were a minority.”Some said being poor had disadvantaged themHowever, in other parts of their interviews, some of these same youth cited examples of discriminatory practicesThere was a teacher, one time, I got suspended for this. He was telling me, he's like, if I got in trouble, he's like 'oh whatever, it's not like you're going to be anything. You're just gonna be a construction worker like your father anyways.”Toronto, Feb. 24, 2011 (male)
21StereotypesMany, in the large cities, also acknowledged, but minimized the importance of negative stereotypes against the PortugueseThey used to call me bricklayer, at X school: 'hey it’s the bricklayer, the bricklairo, pork-chop, paposeco,’...nicknames, oh God. When you're a kid, it's always a reason to fight. But, like, once you get older, it's just nicknames you give each other.Toronto, Feb. 23, 2011 (male)
22What might this mean?Portuguese youth did not learn how to recognized racism and racist practices from parentsPortuguese do not have a history of suffering under discriminatory laws and institutional practicesPortuguese are traditionally colonizers, not colonized peopleThus, can Luso-Canadian youth recognize the expressions of racism?
23Community Involvement Anecdotally Associated with Positive Attitudes Towards Education …kids that aren’t going to post-secondary education aren’t really immersed in their Portuguese culture. Like a lot of the kids I know that go to church, go to all these Portuguese functions, they are going to post-secondary education; they aren’t at risk of dropping out. But the kids that aren’t involved they don’t want to be involved, they are the ones that are finding trouble and not wanting to pursue post-secondary education. Vancouver 2 Focus GroupThose youth who we interviewed, who were involved with the community associations, appeared to be committed to getting a good education. Once again, this is an association that still needs to be tested statistically.I’m also not suggesting that there is a causal relationship between the two. It is possible that the same factors that lead some youth to participate in community life and events also lead them to participate more actively in school (ex. Obedience to parents, stability and support in family life, etc.). However, this phenomenon should be further explored.This also contradicts the attitude that was documented amongst some educators (and many in the community) that the reasons for underachievement are to be found in the influence of the Portuguese culture. This is the “cultural deficit” explanation for minority failure, that was documented amongst those teachers teaching Portuguese children, in the mid 1980’s, in the book “Schooling as a Ritual Performance” by Peter MacLaren.
24Implications Policies and practices on cultural maintenance Discussion of Portuguese history and culture in high school curriculumMore support for Portuguese Associations for cultural maintenancePromotion of involvement of youth in associationsAnti-racism Education Theory (Dei, 1996)Portuguese suffering similar institutional racism as visible minoritiesNot recognized in anti-racism education theorySettlement and community programsStill being used by community up to second and third generationDo not reflect the needs of Portuguese-Canadian youthBetter support familiesShould also include Portuguese cultural events geared towards youthYouth programsNeed for Luso-specific youth programs
25Thank YouThe many youth who contributed their experiences to this studyPortuguese-Canadian National CongressAbrigo Centre (Toronto)Dufferin Mall Youth ServicesPortuguese Associations in Halifax, Winnipeg, Vancouver and MontrealCarrefour LusophoneResearch Assistants: Sabrina Domingues, Diana Cohen-Reis, Lisa Santos, Andrea D’Sylva, Gorette Imm, Amanda Nunes, Michele Greencorn, Melissa Caines