Presentation on theme: "Fitting Fiction with Facts for Japanese-American Internment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fitting Fiction with Facts for Japanese-American Internment Barney & Pamela Rickmanbubble-gum cards entitled"The Horrors of War”
2 (anonymous poem circulated at the Poston Camp) “THAT DAMNED FENCE”(anonymous poem circulated at the Poston Camp)
3 Japanese American Internment, WWII By Dec. 1942, >110,000 people of Japanese ancestry interned as an “enemy race”65% of "evacuees“ = U.S. citizensNone ever charged with treasonFebruary 19, President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, authorizing the secretary of war to define military areas "from which any or all persons may be excluded as deemed necessary or desirable." Under this order, military authorities can exclude civilians from any area without trial or hearing. Although the order did not specify Japanese Americans, they are the only group to be imprisoned without individual hearings. During WWII, 3,200 resident aliens of Italian background are arrested and about 11,000 German residents, including some naturalized citizens, are arrested, but all those of European ancestry who are arrested are granted trials where they face specific charges – a process denied to Japanese Americans. Eventually more than 300 resident aliens of Italian background are interned and more than 5000 German residents are interned.14
4 Final destinations: 1 of 10 camps constructed by War Relocation Authority in 7 states.
5 Reasons: Immediate Reasons: Longer-term Reasons (since late 1800s): Pearl Harbor attackFear of attack on West Coast after Japan’s early victoriesLonger-term Reasons (since late 1800s):RacismEconomic competitionOn American anger at the Pearl Harbor attack, see Alice Yang Murray, “The History of ‘Military Necessity’ in the Japanese American Internment,” in Major Problems in American Immigration History: Documents and Essays, 2nd Ed., by Mae Ngai and Jon Gjerde, (Boston, 2013), , and Greg Robinson, “Another Sort of Pearl Harbor Infamy for Japanese Americans” ( )On the fear of an attack on the West Coast after Japan’s early victories, see John W. Dower, War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York, 1986), 114.On the role of racism and economic competition, see Murray, “The History of ‘Military Necessity’ in the Japanese American Internment,” , and Robinson, “Another Sort of Pearl Harbor Infamy for Japanese Americans” ( )
6 Asian immigrants to USA suffer discrimination (see Timeline) Immigration restrictions:1882: suspend Chinese immigration1907 & 1908: significantly restrict number of Japanese immigrants
7 No Japs in Our Schools / Citizens' Mass Meeting" "Under the Auspices of the Japanese and Korean Exclusion League / The Meeting will be Addressed by Mayor Eugene E. Schmitz... and Other Prominent Citizens / Be Sure to Attend and Register Your Protest By Your Presence" CREDIT: Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkley DATE December 10, 1906
8 Woman pointing to sign displayed above porch Woman pointing to sign displayed above porch. Signs in front window: "Japs Keep Out" "Member Hollywood Protective Association" CREDIT: National Japanese American Historical Society DATE ca. 1920
9 Post Pearl HarborCREDIT: Rebecca Damren, Japanese American Internment, Photo 3 Photo: Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project.
10 Post Pearl Harbor DESCRIPTION Garage door, painted with words "NO JAPS WANTED/ HERE"Seattle, 1942.CREDIT: Museum of History and Industry, Seattle Post-Intelligencer Collection
11 "A Jap's a Jap. It makes no difference whether the Jap is a citizen or not." Lt. General John L. DeWitt, Commander, Western Defense Command, 1942CREDIT: National Archives &"I am determined that if they have one drop of Japanese blood in them, they must go to camp."— Colonel Karl Bendetsen, DeWitt's chief aide for the mass removalCREDIT: National Archives &