Presentation on theme: "THESIS DEVELOPMENT: NEW IMPERIALISM Assessing COT and COMP over midwinter break."— Presentation transcript:
THESIS DEVELOPMENT: NEW IMPERIALISM Assessing COT and COMP over midwinter break
Overview for chapters 19-20 While we are just starting to get our footing back after mid-terms, the mid-winter recess comes along and takes away any inertia we may have begun to develop ( it exists primarily as an economic means to save oil in public schools as a result of the 1973 oil crisis). While I am not entirely against the idea of providing family and friend and leisure time (it began after all as a result of the industrial revolution), I am opposed to wasteful inefficient use of time with the clock ticking toward May 14 th 2015 (90 days from today Friday the lucky February 13 th ). Using Stayer’s chapter’s 19 and 20 and my on-line power points please finish the following COT and COMP thesis statements (please expand your arguments to include a fully supported thesis). Remember our coverage of new vs. old imperialism (this would primarily be new).
In East Asia 1750-1900, the Qing Dynasty’s loss in the Opium War led to forcibly opening their ports, ceding Hong Kong to Great Britain in the Treaty of Nanking, however Evidence: Think of- China’s lack of technology ( no industrialization), Manchu government were really foreigners over ethnically Han people. Extraterritoriality- laws of Chinese government did not apply to “Western” powers. China had multiple rebellions ( Taiping, Boxer, White Lotus) all contributing to instability. China’s Opium addiction was tearing the social fabric which traditionally kept it together,
In Western Europe 1750-1900 the belief in social Darwinism led to increased nationalistic sentiments, increased competitive colonial expansion but Evidence think of- The scientific racism known as social Darwinism suggested that some groups evolved at a higher rate than that of others as evidenced by technologies and industrialization and therefore justified the taking of colonies for the exploitation of land, labor and capital as a “civilizing mission” and the “white man’s burden”
In South Asia 1750-1900 the British East India Company would extend their influence to exploit the labor and cotton industry, would introduce infrastructure and public schools, however Evidence think of- The British East India Companies pursuit of cotton, indigo and jute in addition to one of the largest markets facilitated a policy of direct colonial expansion with the help of local collaborators. The promise of promoting a better way of life often contrasted with the traditional problems of India from patriarchy and caste to starvation.
In Latin America 1750-1900 Western interference in the business affairs would lead to the development of banana republics, exploit the land, labor and capital of the monoculture, however Evidence think of- Latin America’s caudillos would collaborate with Western business influence in the building of canals, providing materials for factories (monoculture) and serving as markets for new business interests with the United States using their military intervention (Monroe Doctrine) to protect business interests with the traditional racism, classism and patriarchy persisting so that the changes do not impact the masses of Latin America populations.
From 1750-1900 in North America, the United States expanded their territory into the Caribbean and Philippines after the Spanish- American war, expanded private business interests to gain great wealth for the robber barons, however Evidence think of- U.S business interests in Latin America was inspired by the capitalist theory that there are a finite amount of resources and must do whatever is necessary to protect to business interests which include the nationalistic support in military intervention in Latin America and the Caribbean, building a Panama canal and fighting the Spanish American war.
IN East Asia the Mejii Restoration in Japan contributed to competing over territories in Korea, began to feel a sense of racial superiority similar to social Darwinism, however Evidence to think of: The response to Admiral Matthew Perry opening up Japan in the port of Edo to unequal trading treaties, the process of industrialization in Japan, the pattern of imperialization, militarization and nationalism to “catch up” to the “West” while also maintaining its traditional culture and identity. Think of the role of the zaibatsu ( industrial monopolies of banking, railroads and industries)
IN Africa 1750-1900, the colonial struggle of European powers was epitomized by Belgian King Leopold’s private colony of the Congo exploiting labor and resources, the Berlin Conference would lead to a European “scramble for Africa” however Evidence to think of: The abuses of land, labor and capital of King Leopold and the Berlin Conference which will lead European powers to divide Africa amongst themselves for the purpose of nationalism and industrialism ( Ethiopia and Liberia will be the only autonomous nations when it is done) the role of scientific racism, the Christianization, commercialization and “civilizing” mission of European powers, the local native collaborators and rebellions, resistance and compromises made by African powers and peoples and the role of natural resources like gold in south Africa and coffee in Kenya
The Ottoman Empire(Middle East) from 1750-1900 would become known as the “sick man of Europe” due to territorial loss to Western European powers, would further lose Greece and Serbia to Nationalist sentiments, however Evidence to think of: Nationalism continuing to divide the once powerful Islamic Gunpowder empire, the myriad wars between Russia over territories. The multi-ethnic rivalries of Arabs, Christians, Jews, Turks and the movements for reforms (Tanzimat), the fight between traditional conservatives (janissaries) and young reformers ( young Turks) and how “Western” powers utilized the empire as a pawn in their imperial game ( similar to that of China’s Qing Dynasty) with spheres of influence
In South Asia 1750-1900 the British Government(Raj) took full control after the Sepoy Mutiny, attempted to abolish sati and child brides, however Evidence to think of: The role of Queen Victoria ( England) and the need to consolidate its authority over British India (the Jewel in its Crown), the role of natural resources, rules that only apply to native South Asians (extraterritoriality), methods of protectionism ( tariffs, unequal treaties, British monopolies on salt, textiles, etc.) the role of Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism. The impacts of South Asia’s fragmented geography and the nationalist sentiment for self-governance ( India National Congress) and local collaborators ( ex. Nabobs or Sikhs)
In Africa 1750-1900 advances in medicine (quinine) and dynamite allowed European powers to exploit Africa or its resources, the “white man’s burden” supported the notion that they were helping to “civilize” the “ ignoble savages” however Evidence to think of: Local stateless societies, Kingdoms like Benin, Hausa city-states, Barbary Kingdoms and their impact by the Royal Niger company. Cecil Rhodes mandate by the British government to build a tans- continental railroad ( from cape to Cairo), the role of Islamic states, the role of Ethiopia's fight to retain its independence. The East Africa slave trade ( which would remain until the 20 th century),
COMP (Remember you must identify the differences for both here not just one): From 1750-1900 in both the Ottoman Empire and the Qing Dynasty, the governments will remain although bound to the spheres of influence of Western Powers, will attempt at efforts to reform (Tanzimat/Self-strengthening) to little avail however Evidence to compare: They both being multiethnic and multi- national empires, lack of industrialization, traditionalism ( Islam and Neo- Confucianism), Both former Gunpowder empires, role trade plays in their empires. The divide and conquer nature of the West to utilize nationalism against both Empires. China’s longer tradition of government ( mandate of Heaven) Internal and external rebellions more for China (Taiping, White Lotus, Boxer), the influence of wars ( Opium, Russian/Crimean)
IN Russia and Japan 1750-1900 the movement toward industrialization was coupled with the attempt at imperialization, the both competed over Siberia to build railroads, however Evidence to compare: Role of nationalism, heterogeneous vs. homogeneous cultures, experience with the “West”, role of foreign investments, geographic location, role of religion and philosophies ( Eastern Orthodox vs. Neo- Confucianism), the impact of Western humiliation ( Crimean War opening ports to U>S. admiral Matthew Perry, the influence of militarization and War ( Sino- Japanese Wars, Crimean Wars, Russo- Japanese Wars)
In Africa and South Asia 1750-1900 Western powers will engage in direct colonization for the purpose of exploiting the land, labor and capital, both will have claims of “civilizing missions” however Evidence to compare: Direct colonization for both, the superiority of “Western” technologies and militaries, the role of local collaborators, the exploitation of material resources including land, labor and capital, the role of religion and geography in its cultural fragmentation, the rebellion and resistance movements made and the justification of imperialism utilizing the “White Man’s burden”
From 1750-1900 both Japan and China were faced with the forced trade with western powers and extraterritoriality, both were exceptionally vulnerable due to lack of technological innovations however Evidence to compare: Unfair and unequal treaties which favored the “West”, the role of the U.S in only Japan and the “Westernization” campaigns for both, the spheres of influence in China, the rebellion both internal and external for Cia, Japan’s Mejii restoration, China’s foreign rulers (Manchus) and their discrimination, the Opium Wars between Britain and China. the role of superior weaponry by the “West” and the success of the Mejii restoration and the failure of the self- strengthening movement (100 days of reform)
Latin America and North America ( 1750-1900) would both have strong economic ties through private business and public interest( Monroe Doctrine) both will have elites gaining great wealth off of their business ties however Evidence to compare: The successes or failures of the Atlantic revolutions, the previous experience of North America’s self-governing, the differentiated role of nationalism (unifying or dividing force) U.S industrializing while little will be done in Latin America, “Western “ influence in investing in Latin American monoculture, role of the caudillos, banana republics and U.S foreign policy of the Monroe Doctrine and military intervention in Latin American Affairs
Japan and the United States 1750-1900 would both have strong national interests in industrialization and imperilaization, both would have state- sponsorship of business, however Evidence to compare: The role of industrializing either through state sponsorship or by private enterprise, the role of geography and prior imitation and the history of imperialism ( U.S. Western expansion in additional to Spanish-American Wars0, the role of militarism and Wars, the homogeneity of Japan vs. the heterogeneity of the United States (culturally) the role of immigration policies (open’U.S, Closed- Japan) and the role of schools and literacy campaigns and women’s influence
Western Europe and the United States 1750-1900 will compete over land, labor and capital 1750-1900, both will engage in spheres of influence and open door policies in East Asia, however Evidence to compare: Both were “Western” powers which were supported by nationalism, both had Atlantic Revolutions, abolition of slavery will happen eventually and massive immigration and emigration will have a tremendous impact on their economies and others, the timing of the 1 st industrial revolution coupled with the competitive nature of Western Europe might provide an advantage and the geography of imperialism will foster a different pattern in Asia, Africa and Latin America including the types of imperialism
IN both South Asia and East Asia 1750-1900, the colonization led to strong emigration due to poor economies, both were destabilized both internally as well as externally by indigenous and foreign powers however Evidence to compare: The fragmented and weakened economies of both, the culture of the native inhabitants ( role of geography, religion, history of foreign rule), going from coastal enclaves with respect to trade to imperialism, types of imperialism ( spheres of influence and direct colonization) the role of rebellions, resistance and local collaborators and the benefits from Western influence and social Darwinism
In both Latin America and Africa 1750-1900 foreign business interests would exploit the land, labor and capital, both would have local collaborators to help “Western “ powers, however Evidence to compare: Experience with the Atlantic revolutions and timing of old and new imperialism, the role of resources, labor and capital, the abolition of slavery, role of native inhabitants, economic imperialism vs. direct imperialism, unfair and unequal treaties ( Berlin Conference) wars of territorial expansion and “Western Powers” influence, U.S intervention in Latin America but not Africa, role of scientific racism AKA social Darwinism
Both the Ottoman Empire and Russia(1750-1900) would compete over access to warm water ports by engaging in Military wars, both would struggle with some industrial and political reforms, however Think of Comparative evidence like: Multi-ethnic empires, the successes and failures of reform campaigns( Decembrist uprising, emancipation of serfs, Tanzimat reforms) the success of Russian militarization and industrialization and the fragmentation of the Ottoman Empire as the “sick man of Europe”, their wars between each other, the intervention of “Western Powers” in the Crimean War and impacts as nationalism as a unifying or divisive force.