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CULTURAL COMPETENCE Fall 2013 Presented By: Faye Roberts

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1 CULTURAL COMPETENCE Fall 2013 Presented By: Faye Roberts
Compiled By: Faye Roberts & Phianna Lee Fall 2013

2 OVERVIEW Objectives Ground Rules Silent Introductions
What is Cultural Competence? Models of Cultural Competence Carol’s Story Race, Ethnicity, Culture Worldview: Western VS. Non-western Oppression, Racism, Power Strategies for Developing Cultural Competence Questions? Resources

3 OBJECTIVES The training must be participatory
Reflect our values of the agency Carried forward into our programs in our Conversation sessions, mentorships and events Build on the knowledge sharing of our newcomers to our volunteers and beyond in to the community To identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes our volunteers have to communicate across cultural boundaries To put the values of respect and diversity into practice in our everyday lives

4 GROUND RULES Share knowledge Be open Show respect Listen to each other
One person speaks at a time Honest with feedback Give feedback in writing BE YOURSELF!!!

5 No one should make the claim of being educated until he or she has learned to live in harmony with people who are different. - A. H. Wilson

6 Silent Introductions

7 Assumptions & Stereotypes
OBJECTIVES: To understand the inaccuracies & hurtful impact of assumptions & stereotypes To understand how stereotypes stigmatize an entire group To identify sources that perpetuate stereotypes To identify strategies for eliminating negative stereotypes and assumptions

8 Assumptions & Stereotypes
Activity Description: Choose a partner with someone whom you do not know Without soliciting input from partner, each person answers following questions about your partner: Where is your partner from? Did your partner grow up poor, working-, middle-, or upper- class? What is your partner’s religious affiliation? For how many generations has your partner’s family been in this country? What is your partner’s ethnic origin? What is your partner’s marital status? How much formal education do your partner’s parents have? How many children does your partner have?

9 Assumptions & Stereotypes
After completion of the above, please… Share assumptions with partners Explain why & how you generated these assumptions Correct any erroneous statements made about him/her Describe how it felt to hear these Discuss what factors contribute to the stereotypes & how they originated



A set of congruent attitudes, practices, policies & structures that come together in a system/agency to enable professionals to work more effectively with members of culturally distinct groups in a manner that values & respects the culture & worldview of those groups

Identify & understand the impact of various identities in a given situation Understand & effectively manage intergroup dynamics to ensure effective communication Understand & challenge the assumptions/ policies/politics in the system that impact on identities & interactions

Knowing everything about every culture/needing to abandon own cultural identity, rather it means a respect for differences & a willingness to accept the idea that there are many ways of viewing the world


16 MODEL #1 Mason et al.’s (1996) 5-stage model of cultural competence:
1. Cultural destructiveness - Acknowledgement of differences is refused 2. Cultural incapacity - Differences are widely ignored 3. Cultural blindness: - Cultural differences are not viewed as important 4. Cultural precompetence – The need for cultural competence is recognized 5. Cultural competence – Differences are acknowledged & organizations explore issues of equity, viewing people’s backgrounds as resources

17 MODEL #2 Pedersen’s 3-stage model of cultural competence:
1. Awareness – of own attitudes & biases as well as the sociopolitical issues that confront culturally different youngsters 2. Knowledge – accumulation of factual information about different cultural groups 3. Skills – integration of awareness competencies to positively impact others from culturally distinct groups



20 Carol is a supervisor of a data-processing unit in a large securities firm. Her department includes employees of several different nationalities. She has had a recurring problem dealing with unique management issues when these cultures clash…

21 “It is difficult keeping harmony in the department
“It is difficult keeping harmony in the department. Each culture seems to form cliques. You can see it when you look in the cafeteria at lunch time – the West Indians sit over here, the Portuguese over here, and the Filipinos and East Indians in the other two corners. It’s hard to develop a team spirit, especially when most of the time they speak to each other in their mother tongue. Today, for example, Sheena refuses to work beside Mohammed because she claims he put a curse on her. How am I supposed to manage that?”



24 Race as a Construct Related to Cultural Competence
Originally the term race was used to sort races on basis of phenotypic/permanent physical characteristics; therefore, many racial distinctions were determined on basis of physical differences Currently, race operates as a social construction that frequently refers more to social & political interactions & dynamics that subordinate nonwhite groups than to skin colour, genetic/biological features

25 Ethnicity as a Construct Related to Competence
Ethnicity describes groups in which members share a cultural heritage from one generation to another Attributes include a group image & a sense of identity derived from contemporary cultural patterns (e.g. values, beliefs & language) & a sense of history)

26 What is the difference between race and ethnicity?
Many similarities between race & ethnicity Race  Broad encompassing term reflects physical characteristics & social status Ethnicity  Often refers to nationality & country of origin

27 Example… Asians represent a racial group on basis of their skin color and physical features Varying ethnic groups among Asians (Koreans, Hmongs, Japanese, Vietnamese) People of same ethnicity may have different racial origins Latinos may share similarities in geographical origin, but represent various racial backgrounds (Caucasian, African, Indian)

28 ACTIVITY: What is Culture?
[16] What is Culture? (pp )

29 Culture as a Construct Related to Competence
Culture  sum total of ways of living developed by a group of human beings to meet biological & psychosocial needs Includes patterns of thought, behaviour, language, customs, institutions & material objects Integrated pattern of human behavior, which includes thoughts, communication, action, customs, beliefs, values & instructions of a racial, ethnic, religious/social group.

30 Culture as a Construct Related to Competence
Cultural differences between groups frequently result in cultural conflict because dominant cultural group often assumes that its way of thinking, behaving & responding to the world is superior & even universally standard Must recognize & accept reality that various cultural groups have vastly different fundamental beliefs & philosophical orientations

31 Culture as a Construct Related to Competence
Often someone who has not been initiated into a particular culture has little knowledge of the more deep-seated aspects of culture: Patterns of thought Perceptions about male-female relationships Notions of ability & disability Dictates governing children’s role in the family



34 PERSONAL INFLUENCES [14] Personal Influences (pp )

35 Worldview as a Construct Related to Cultural Competence
Provides helpful framework for understanding how different cultural groups make sense of & interpret their experiences and worlds Worldviews consist of one’s attitudes, values, opinions, concepts, thought & decision- making processes, as well as how one behaves & defines events

To understand various cultural worldviews, must make 2 distinctions: 1) Western cultural orientation  people of various European ancestries & usually approximates a White, middle-class norm 2) Non-Western cultural orientation  culturally distinct groups of African, Asian, Latino & Indian ancestry

37 WORLDVIEWS: Western VS. Non-Western Cultural Orientations


39 Recognizing & Responding to Oppression as a Form of Cultural Competency
Oppression: A system that allows access to the services, rewards, benefits & privileges of society based on membership in a particular group Umbrella term that captures all forms of domination & control (racism, sexism, heterosexism & classism)

40 Recognizing & Responding to Oppression as a Form of Cultural Competency
People can experience single/multiple forms of oppression African-American female receiving special education services may experience: Racism = representative of a culturally different group Sexism = result of her gender Linguicism = does not speak Standard English An internalized sense of shame & embarrassment, because of stigma associated with a diagnosed learning disability



43 PERSONAL BARRIERS Personal Barriers (p. 117)

44 TYPES OF RACISMS 1. Overt & covert racism 2. Institutional racism
3. Societal racism 4. Civilizational racism

45 TYPES OF RACISMS Overt racism: Covert racism:
Intentional & deliberate form of racism purposely enacted to inflict pain solely on basis of race Covert racism: Unplanned & unintentional, yet yields consequences similar to overt forms of racism E.g. When a child of colour registers for class in a new school Assumed, on basis of skin colour & perhaps social class, he/she requires a class for children with low abilities In reality, child may have a stellar academic record & be eligible for gifted education services

46 TYPES OF RACISMS Institutional racism: Societal racism:
Policies & practices within an organization that penalize members of a particular group on basis of race Societal racism: When social & cultural assumptions of 1 group are favoured over norms & dictates of another E.g. Definition of a “model” nuclear family = 2 heterosexual parents & their offspring(s) Deviations from this dominant cultural dictate = aberrations & consequently, devalued

47 TYPES OF RACISMS Civilizational racism:
Functions as a broad construct deeply embedded in how people think Different groups = different orientations toward the world Dominant groups/civilizations often assign subordinate status to the values & viewpoints of groups as lower in societal hierarchy Values & viewpoints of dominant groups often prevail as superior forms of functioning & become deeply embedded in fabric of society (seldom questioned) Based on many forms of scientific thought & often assume prevalence in popular culture & behaviour



50 The Tale of “O” on Diversity
(9:31 mins) (10:35 mins) Describes what happens when a person who is perceived as different enters a new group setting Uses symbols rather than actors to avoid making specific references to culturally different groups By using Os to represent those in the minority & Xs represent the dominant group, emphasis is placed on issues as opposed to people Promotes understanding & cooperation Discuss your reactions Discuss the extent to which these dynamics occur when people interact Discuss examples of feeling different in their personal lives & examples of how we observe & respond to difference when it occurs in reality

51 The Tale of “O” on Diversity
What happens when “X”s and “O”s are people? How do “O”s feel in a group setting in which they are a numerical minority? What are some personal examples of feeling different in your own life?

52 Recognizing & Responding to Power & Privilege as a Form of Cultural Competency
Function of power & powerlessness when individuals from different racial & cultural groups interact Power: a sociopolitical process that effects change & wields influence over others, especially in a manner that diminishes one’s own sense of personhood Inability of a person to effect change & influence the outcomes in her/his life Status differentials exist between an individual with more power & 1 with less power

53 POWER DYNAMICS Embedded in values of individualism, personal mastery, competition & acquisition of material goods are notions that individuals must exercise control, dominion & authority Power can be exercised justly & equitably, too frequently power is abused so that individuals with less power are manipulated, controlled & coerced > themselves & others Be used for self-enhancement to reinforce another individual’s sense of powerlessness & inadequacy

Conformity – person prefers aspects of the dominant culture to her/his own culture Dissonance – person challenges previously held beliefs & attitudes

55 Strategies for Developing Cultural Competence

56 Class, race, sexuality, general—and all other categories by which we categorize and dismiss each other—need to be excavated from the inside Dorothy Allison


58 UPS & DOWNS [13] Ups & Downs (pp )

59 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Valuing diversity 2. Engaging in cultural self- assessments 3. Understanding the dynamics of difference 4. Developing cultural knowledge 5. Adapting to culture, especially to its deep structural aspects 6. Establishing cultural reciprocity

60 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES 1) Valuing diversity: acknowledging & celebrating diverse values & viewpoints 2) Cultural self-assessments: self-assess one’s own identities, attitudes, values & beliefs, if done critically, allow individuals & systems to determine what areas to address & change = “cultural therapy” Individuals & organizations must examine their cultural attitudes, assumptions, worldviews, values, prejudices & biases Generally reluctant to engage in this self-assessment process

61 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES 3) The Dynamics of Difference: include stereotypes we all bring to any interaction, which affect interacting with others & should bridge cultural schisms that currently impede mutual acceptance & understanding between culturally different groups When 2 individuals from different cultures interface, both bring aspects of this dyad & their assumptions & stereotypes about someone from the other group Often results in cultural conflicts & misunderstandings

62 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES 4) Developing Deep Cultural Knowledge: of culture of self & others enhances interaction Being willing to ask for & seek out information from others If truly interested in learning about the “other,” opened-hearted questioning of others usually reveals much useful information: Reading extensively Engaging in public education Using media materials Personally experiencing these groups

63 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES 5) Adapting to cultural differences: process in which individuals & systems include, analyze & infuse funds of cultural knowledge & artifacts into organization, structure & processes Valuing cultural & other forms of difference & including these forms of difference in the routines of teaching & learning exemplify this principle Adapting to diversity can be awkward, but can use people’s differences as a bridge from which to grow & increase knowledge

64 6 BASIC PRINCIPLES 6) Cultural Reciprocity:
Represents shared & mutual process of collaboration involving individuals, families/other institutions Involves a willingness to consider the assumptions that culturally diverse individuals & families have that could impact the educational process for children Focus on people’s perspective


66 Cultural Competence: Self-Assessment
Cultural Competence: Self-Assessment Form from “Diversity Mosaic” on pg Scoring Categories on pg. 41


68 RESOURCES h_asst_prof_dev/self_assessment/dispropor tionality/cultural_competence_manual.pdf

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