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.  The 1920s is a major era of transition and includes: o Isolationism o Immigration o Red Scare o Jazz Age o Social Darwinism o Eugenics o Nativism.

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Presentation on theme: ".  The 1920s is a major era of transition and includes: o Isolationism o Immigration o Red Scare o Jazz Age o Social Darwinism o Eugenics o Nativism."— Presentation transcript:

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2  The 1920s is a major era of transition and includes: o Isolationism o Immigration o Red Scare o Jazz Age o Social Darwinism o Eugenics o Nativism o Changing role of women o Economic boom/ consumerism

3  US had to adjust to a new peace after WWI  Decade starts with the US being a member of the Allies and getting to partake in global decisions  Decade ends with the Stock Market Crash and the beginning of the Great Depression

4  Many Americans began to favor isolationism after WWI in foreign affairs o Isolationism: refusing to become involved in other nation’s problems  From , US had a temporary economic recession (downturn) o Government stopped wartime spending and soldiers returned home looking for jobs o Factories closed to convert back to civilian production o Farmers lost markets in Europe

5  Russian Revolution in 1917 made Russia the world’s first communist country  Russia wanted a worldwide Communist revolution and strikes began to spread in Europe and the US  Many Americans feared a Communist Revolution in the US, creating a Red Scare

6  Palmer Raids o January 1919 – Italian anarchist set off bomb outside of home of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer o Bombing was part of a series of attacks in 8 cities o Convinced Palmer that it was a radical plot to overthrow the US government o 1920 – Palmer ordered the round-up of 4,000 suspects in several cities with warrants His assistant J. Edgar Hoover directed the raid Most were released but 600 were eventually deported

7  Sacco and Venzetti Case o Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Venzetti – two Italian immigrants convicted of committing murder during a robbery o Robbery allegedly to get funds for anarchist revolution. o Rest of the world pressured to release them o Despite lack of evidence, both were found guilty and executed in 1927 Supporters believed conviction was due to their anarchist views despite jurors insisting otherwise.

8  The Red Scare contributed to the rise of nativism (dislike of foreigners)  Ku Klux Klan found new life in 1915 o Hostile to immigrants, Catholics, and African Americans o Major race riots broke out in many American cities o Worst were in Chicago where 38 people were killed o Lynching and segregation continued in the South

9  Harding, Coolidge and Hoover were Republican presidents o Favored laissez-faire economics o High protective tariffs (Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act (1930) raised tariffs to highest levels in history) o Lower taxes on the wealthy and corporations o Lax enforcement of antitrust laws and regulations

10  William Harding – elected 1920 by a landslide o Campaigned for a “return to normalcy” o US refused to join League of Nations o Enacted high tariffs o Lowered taxes o Restricted immigration

11  Showed tolerance and resisted anti-Semitism o Campaign manager was Albert Lasker, “Father of Modern Advertising”  Created child health care centers and pursued arms reduction o Supported Washington Naval Conference and US membership in the World Court

12  Teapot Dome Scandal o Appointed personal friends to cabinet positions o Secretary of the Interior leased oil-rich govt lands at Teapot Dome, Wyoming to two business friends in exchange for bribes o Scandal uncovered right after Harding’s in death in 1923 and was one of the worst scandals in U.S. history  Charles Forbes stole millions from construction of hospitals for returning veterans  Scandals have left a lasting stain on his reputation

13  Harding’s Vice President  Became President when Harding died suddenly in 1923  Elected for second term in 1924  Symbolized by old- fashioned values of honesty and thrift

14  Pro-business  Rarely spoke in public  Talent for doing nothing  Some accuse his laissez-faire approach to the economy as encouraging the over-speculation that resulted in the crash of 1929

15  Self-made millionaire  Predicted end of poverty in America  “Rugged individualism” o America as equal opportunities and a will to succeed o Spurred progress and made US great o Too much govt involvement would hurt nation’s prosperity

16  Govt policies favoring businesses  Rise of the automobile  Rise of other new industries  More efficient production techniques  Age of Mass Consumption  Speculation Boom  Uneven Prosperity

17  Automobile owners rose from 8 to 24 million  Took large amounts of steel, glass, and rubber to make o Stimulating those industries  1929 – one out of every nine workers in the automobile industry

18  Henry Ford o Early automobile manufacturer o Wanted to build cars everyone could afford o Model T in 1905 – fist car many middle class Americans could buy o Introduced assembly line in 1914 By 1924 producing 1.6 million cars for less than $300 per car So efficient, able to double wages and slash prices

19  New discoveries and innovations in every field  Improvements in: o Transmitting electrical power o Improved motors o New Trans-Atlantic telephone service o New household appliances Vacuum cleaner Refrigerator Toaster o Use of oil and natural gas expanded. o Radio and motion pictures became more widespread  New jobs

20  Glenn Curtiss o Early aviation pioneer o First plane with motor in Kitty Hawk, North Caroline 1902 by Wright Brothers o 1908 – work on designing seaplane that could take off and land on water Succeeded 3 years later with “hydroeroplane” Marked birth of US naval aviation o 1912 – developed larger flying boat o 1919 – constructed first airplane to cross Atlantic Ocean for US Navy

21  Use of conveyer belt spread to other industries  Many factories adopted the assembly line  Gains in productivity and allowed for lower prices  Changed nature of factory work o Skilled workers no longer needed

22  Advertising stimulated demand  Workers had higher wages and more leisure time  Retailers allowed people to buy on credit with installment plans

23  Speculation: purchase of any item not for personal use but in the hope of selling it later for a higher price  1920s – spread of speculation in stocks and real estate  Stock prices climbed > gains in stocks fueled speculation > heard of successes and enticed more people to buy stocks for easy profits > stock prices went even higher.

24  Wealth was highly concentrated  1929 – top one thousandth (0.1%) o Americans had a combined income equal to the bottom 42% o Same top group controlled about 1/3 of all savings, while ¾ of Americans had no savings at all  Many Americans still faced poverty  Farmers faced lower income due to overproduction  Railroads suffered from competition from cars  Textile workers faced lower wages because of foreign competition  Minority groups faced discrimination in employment

25  1920s saw adoption of new values that threatened traditional values  Young people wanted greater freedom  Many groups felt new sense of power while others felt threatened and sought to preserve traditional ways

26  Liquor is the cause of poverty and crime o Many women’s organizations championed to end the selling of alcoholic drinks  Frances Willard o One of most outspoken on Temperance Movement o 1879 – elected President of National Women’s Temperance Union Advocated women’s rights, suffrage, prison reform, 8 hour work day, and improved factory conditions o 1882 – organized the Prohibition Party  1919 – Work of Willard and others convinced states to pass 18 th amendment banning the sale of alcohol

27  Many felt it legislated and forced one group’s moral beliefs on others  Others opposed because it closed bars, breweries, etc and put people out of work  Led to a growth in lawlessness and organized crime to supply illegal alcohol to consumers  Alcohol available in “speakeasies” and other underground drinking establishments  21th amendment (1933) repealed 18 th amendment and Prohibition

28  Tennessee – first state to pass law against teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution o 1925 – John Scopes, a biology teacher, was arrested for teaching his class about evolution Arrested and put on trial  Scopes “Monkey Trial” drew attention for old religion beliefs vs. new scientific theories  William Jennings Bryan represented Tennessee and Clarence Darrow defended Scopes  First trial in American history to be broadcast over radio  Scopes was convicted for teaching evolution but $1 was later set aside

29  1910 – 70% of all immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe  WWI – immigration trickled down  After WWI nativist feelings led Congress to restrict immigration from Europe  Fears: Anti-Catholic, ethnic bias, and admitting foreign radicals o Many immigrants were unskilled, without education and knowledge of English o “New Immigrants” settled in inner cities and put added pressures on local governments

30  Immigration Acts of 1921, 1924, and 1929 – keep immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe out  Quotas for each nationality based on current ethnic composition o Western Europe immigrants allowed in great numbers, but “New Immigrants” limited o Asian immigration barred all together

31  Widespread belief in superiority of the Anglo-Saxon “race” of light-skinned, blond-haired, blue-eyed people  Eugenics – pseudoscience that the human race could be improved by breeding  Charles Davenport o leading proponent of eugenics o Prevent the mentally ill from having children, mental illness be reduced o Reduce immigration from “inferior races” of Eastern and Southern Europe  Led to forced sterilizations, segregation laws, and marriage restrictions  Ideas later spread to Germany  Ideas closely tied to Social Darwinism

32  Women o 19 th Amendment – women can vote o New household appliances reduced housework o More women in college o More women worked > greater economic independence and more assertive o Young women began to drink and smoke in public o Rejected restrictive clothing and adopted the “flapper” look Short dresses that revealed body shapes, legs and arms Hair was short and choppy with a lot of make-up Went on dates without chaperones and enjoyed dancing o Began reading Sigmund Freud and treating sexuality more openly

33  Tin Pan Alley o 1910 – New York City capital of popular music publishing o Tin Pan Alley – section of New York – where song-writing and musical ideas mixed to form American popular music Blues, jazz, and ragtime melded together o Sheet music popular o Vaudeville became popular and needed lots of music o Saw the emergence of famous song writers: Irving Berlin Cole Porter Scott Joplin George Gershwin

34  New group of writers called the “Lost Generation” rejected desire for material wealth  Did not fit into life after horrors of WWI  Several lived in Paris  Ernest Hemmingway – A Farewell to Arms, The Sun Also Rises  Sinclair Lewis – Main Street and Babbitt o Strong characterization of women o First American author to receive Nobel Prize in literature  F. Scott Fitzgerald – The Jazz Age and The Great Gatsby

35  – Great Migration o 2 million African Americans left the South to the “Promised Land” of the Northeast and Midwest o Left searching for jobs and escape sharecropping, tenant farming, and racism in the South o Reports from family and friends who had previously migrated inspired it as well o Chicago’s population more than doubled, Cleveland’s by three times, Detroit’s by six fold o Greeted with racism, housing shortages, and crime o National Urban League and NAACP helped adjust o African Americans created cities within cities, largest being Harlem

36  1920s – Jazz Age o Reflect importance of new form of African American music  Awakening of African American culture known as the Harlem Renaissance o Brought recognition to African American community o Langton Hughes and Alain Locked Expressed pride in race and attacked racism Hughes is one of America’s best poets o Countee Cullen Won more major literary prizes than any other African American in the 1920s o Zora Neale Hurston One of first successful African-American women authors Their Eyes Were Watching God

37  1920s – Jazz Age o Reflect importance of new form of African American music  Awakening of African American culture known as the Harlem Renaissance o Brought recognition to African American community o Langton Hughes and Alain Locked Expressed pride in race and attacked racism Hughes is one of America’s best poets o Countee Cullen Won more major literary prizes than any other African American in the 1920s o Zora Neale Hurston One of first successful African-American women authors Their Eyes Were Watching God

38  Marcus Garvey o Highly controversial political activist o Emphasized racial pride o Universal Negro Improvement Association in London o Wanted to liberate African people around the world o Spoke to African Americans who had witnessed more tolerance in Europe and returned to a racist US o Encouraged African Americans to set up businesses and shops o Back to Africa moment – African Americans should return to Africa, especially to Liberia

39  More leisure – more opportunity for entertainment  Rise of popular heroes to preserve sense of personal identity in time of impersonal machines  Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey served as new role models  Charles Lindbergh o First person to fly across Atlantic Ocean in 1927 o Made it alone in a single-engine plane o Landed plane 33 hours later in Paris on May 27, 1927 o Plane “Spirit of St. Louis” carried him over 3,600 miles o Made him national hero and worldwide celebrity

40  Impact of tariffs on world trade – high tariffs limited foreign trade and investment o Became a barrier to European countries repaying the debts they owed the U.S. following World War I  Stock market speculation – buying stocks on margin (needing only 10% of the price of a stock to be able to complete the purchase) led to rampant speculation and falsely high stock prices  The monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System o In 1928 and 1929, the Fed raised interest rates to try to curb Wall Street speculation

41  Bank failures – once the stock market crashed, fearful that banks would fail, millions of Americans began to withdraw their money. o Virtually overnight, they put thousands of banks in peril. o The more money Americans withdrew, the more banks failed o The more banks failed, the more money Americans withdrew. o Banks were not secure and the money in them was not insured if banks failed.


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