1.We are learning about some key social, economic, and political events, trends, and developments in Canada between 1914 and 1929. 2.We are learning to assess the impact of these events, trends and developments in terms of how they affected the lives of people in Canada between 1914 and 1929.
1.We will be able to explain their historical significance. 2.We will be take a historical perspective when we explain the historical significance. Historical Significance: When a person, event or object has an important role in our understanding of our past. Something that has had a major impact in human history. Historical Perspective: A point of view of a subject or event, taking everything into consideration, in relation to human history.
1.What national and international events and developments during this period affected the lives of people in different ways? 2.What key social developments in Canada impacted the lives of different people in Canada?
The Changing of the Canadian Demographic and Identity
Many immigrants came to Canada to find a better life for themselves and their families. They left their home country because of poverty, over-crowding, or political or religious persecution. After their (approximately) two week journey at the bottom of a ship in over -crowded conditions, many new immigrants disembarked in Halifax, Victoria or Quebec City. From here, they took a train to their final destination. Many established roots in Vancouver, Montreal or Toronto. However, many also settled in the Canadian prairies.
Jewish immigrants have been a part of Canada since the 1750’s, however there was a large influx of Jewish immigration in the early 1900s. Many Jews left Europe and parts of Russia due to the increase of anti-Semitism (discrimination against Jews) in their homeland. They came to Canada to escape this persecution. The Jewish population in Canada grew from 2,500 in 1881 to 75,000 in 1914.
Although Canada gave new Jewish immigrants much more freedom, Jews were experienced discrimination. In many Canadian cities, they had segregation laws against the Jews. They were also only allowed to work in certain jobs. Even with these hardships, the Jewish communities survived and prospered. They built synagogues, schools, financial institutions and newspapers. They also kept their native language (Yiddish) and religion alive.
The 1800s were a time of Black migration to Canada. Many Blacks escaped slavery in the U.S.A. through the underground railroad, and many more moved to Canada to escape the racism that was very real after the abolition of slavery. Although they escaped from the U.S., racism towards Blacks was also alive in Canada. Many city councilors wanted to force escaped slaves to move back to the U.S.A. after the abolition of slavery.
After the abolition of slavery in the U.S.A. (1865), many Blacks moved back to America since land was being given to ex-slaves as compensation. By the early 1900s only 18,000 Blacks were living in Canada. Those who stayed set roots in Nova Scotia, south-western Ontario, British Columbia and across the Prairie Provinces.
A wave of immigration occurred in the 1920s, with immigrants from the Caribbean coming to work in the steel mills of Cape Breton. Furthermore, some Black Canadians trace their ancestry to people who fled racism in Oklahoma, Texas, and other American Great Plains states in the early 1900s. They moved north to Alberta and Saskatchewan.
William Hubbard was the first Black politician in Canadian history. Born in Toronto, Hubbard was the son of American slaves who escaped from the U.S.A.. He was the Deputy Mayor for a year in the early 1900s. Elijah McCoy was born free in Ontario to parents who escaped the U.S.A. He was a great inventor having 57 patents. His greatest inventions were lubricating systems for steam engines. The term “The Real McCoy” came from people using his products for their superiority.
Chinese Canadians first came to Canada from San Francisco in search of gold. As early as 1858, Chinese communities were established in Victoria, British Columbia. In the following generation, thousands of Chinese immigrants moved to British Columbia from southern China to escape turmoil and poverty. Many of them found work constructing the Canadian Pacific Railway.
These Chinese workers were given very difficult and dangerous jobs such as tunneling, and setting explosives. It is said that 3 Chinese men died for every kilometer of track laid. Chinese labour not only built the railway, but was also very important to the Canadian economy. After the completion of the railway, many Chinese and Japanese Canadians wanted to stay, and build a life in Canada. PRIMARY SOURCE : Click here Click here to read a document from 1896 against Chinese Immigration
However, this mass influx of Chinese and Japanese immigrants frightened British Columbian men. They feared these new immigrants would take their jobs since employers could pay them less. Discrimination increased among white men in British Columbia because of this fear. The government started a ‘Head Tax’ which charged Asian immigrants to Canada. This ‘Head Tax’ started at $50 in 1885, and had been raised to $500 by 1903.
The first major wave of immigrants to come to Canada from the Ukraine was in the late 1800’s. Between 1870 and 1914, approximately one million Ukrainians left the Austria-Hungarian Empire. 170,000 of those one million immigrated to Canada. Many of the Ukrainian men went to the Prairies without their families, and started a farm by themselves. This was an extremely difficult task.
Ukrainians were considered very hard working, and loyal to Canada, however suspicions still arose. Many of them brought their own religion (Catholic Orthodox), language and architecture. Although the discrimination against them was not as severe as other immigrants, Ukrainian Canadians had to work extremely hard to establish their roots in Canada. Click here Click here for the website. Be sure to look at the document and video link
In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, many Lebanese Christians immigrated to Canada to escape persecution and better financial opportunities. The majority of Lebanese Canadians moved to big cities, and began to build businesses. Many sold goods from a cart or wagon to make money, and others opened up small businesses.