Presentation on theme: "Claims and Counterclaims. Due Dates- R&J Essay Outline due start of class Monday, April 21 Draft of essay due start of class Monday, April 28 Final copy."— Presentation transcript:
Claims and Counterclaims
Due Dates- R&J Essay Outline due start of class Monday, April 21 Draft of essay due start of class Monday, April 28 Final copy due start of class Friday, May 2 I do not accept ed assignments Visit the LRC BEFORE school to print
A thesis is… What you believe and intend to prove in your essay Answers the prompt Includes the “why” Example: Romeo is to blame for the complications in Act II because he is thinking using the bottom half of the Chain of Being. Bad: Romeo is to blame.
A claim is… A position on a topic presented in your paper Supports your thesis Reasons that prove your thesis –Bad: Romeo is to blame. –Good: Romeo is lustful for Juliet and not in love, which goes against Elizabethan beliefs. –Bad: The characters in Buried Onions are flat. –Good: Buried Onions presents simple caricatures of Mexican Americans, and the characters, particularly the protagonist Eddie, are flat.
A counterclaim is… any position against your thesis – Bad: Some disagree that Eddie is a flat character. – Good: Despite Soto’s protagonist Eddie being a flat character, some may think he makes several key decisions which would otherwise indicate that he is, in fact, complex. Use the correct language to form your counterclaim – Although ________, some may think _______. – Despite _______, in reality _______.
Counterclaims are beneficial! They acknowledge your reader’s intelligence They enhances your credibility They sharpen & clarify your thesis (main claim) They provide a new way to argue your position vs.
Ways to Establish Counterclaims Show others’ views to be faulty! – Faulty Factual Assumption – Faulty Analytical Assumption – Faulty Values – True but Irrelevant This makes YOUR argument stronger!
Sample Thesis: Thesis: Students in high school need to study the causes of racism.
1. Faulty Factual Assumption Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to study it. The factual assumption in this example is that racism is a thing of the past. Show that racism continues to be a problem. And/or…show that students must understand the past as well as the present to function adequately in civil society.
2. Faulty Analytical Assumption Learning about racism might make students more racist. The analytical assumption is that learning about racism can make you racist. Show that the cause(s) of a problem is not the same as causing or creating the problem.
3. Faulty Values It does not matter that students are racist. The faulty value is that it does not matter if students are racist. Show that it DOES matter!
4. True but Irrelevant Students are already familiar with racism; they don’t need to study it in school. Acknowledge that while many students are, in fact, already familiar with racism, they still need to learn what causes it.
5. YOUR argument gets stronger! Previous generations didn’t study the causes of racism, so students now don’t need to. Show that previous generations did not function adequately in civil society because they had problems with racism. Therefore, the fact that they didn’t learn about the causes of racism, together with this other information, actually supports the claim that students do need to learn what causes racism.
Structure of a Body Paragraph Topic Sentence (1 sentence) Analyze Quotation (2-3) Give context/background (1-2 sentences) Integrated Quotation from Text Concluding Sentence (1 sentence – connects back to your topic sentence) 1.Draw Inferences 2.Connect to Topic Sentence Transition to next point; context for next example (2 Sentences) Quotation 8 Analysis 7 6
Counterclaim Paragraph 1.State the counterclaim 2.Turn against 1.Explain the counterclaim 2.Give evidence 3.Provide the warrant (elaboration/ analysis) 3.Turn back/refute 1.Explain the evidence AGAINST the counterclaim 2.Give evidence 3.Provide the warrant (elaboration/ analysis) 4.Conclude paragraph
Counterclaim Turn Against (Counters Thesis) Analyze Quotation (2-3) Give context/background (1-2 sentences) Integrated Quotation from Text Concluding Sentence (Bring together what you found out) 1.Draw Inferences 2.Connect to Topic Sentence Turn Back/Refute; Explain (2 sentences) Integrated Quotation 8 Analysis 7 6
State Counterclaim – Turn Against Introduce the counterargument. Use correct language: Although ________, some may think _______. Despite _______, in reality _______.
Turn Back/Refute Now that you have examined the counterargument, return to your original argument. Use correct language: Transition + why the counter is wrong However, reason why counter wrong Although, reason why counter wrong
Turn Back/Refute Example Thesis: Romeo and Juliet’s decisions have a larger affect on their own lives because now people view them negatively. Claim #1: Romeo acts impulsively by killing Tybalt. Quote to support: When Romeo kills Tybalt, it causes town to banish him. Counterclaim: Although the couple’s decisions affect their lives, the decisions also affect other people. Quote to support: When Juliet disobeys her father by not marrying Paris and causes shame to the family. Turn Back/Refute: Although, Juliet’s father is moving too quickly and causing more problems by arranging the marriage to Paris. Quote to support: When Juliet’s father plans the wedding to Paris.
State Counterclaim Introduce the counterargument. Use correct language: Although ________, some may think _______. Despite _______, in reality _______.
Citation (Shakespeare Act Roman Numeral.Scene Roman Numeral.Line numbers) (Shakespeare I. i )