Presentation on theme: "John A. “Jay” Mills, PhD, ABPP"— Presentation transcript:
1 John A. “Jay” Mills, PhD, ABPP Positive Multiculturalism as Aspirational Ethical Practice: Therapeutic ApplicationsMolly Haas Cowan, PsyDJeanne M. Slattery, PhDJohn A. “Jay” Mills, PhD, ABPP
2 Ground Rules (Ervin, 2014) Be respectful/mindful of others Self-reflect and become aware of your personal reactionsKnow your limits and boundaries, disclosing only what is okay for youSit with tough emotionsHow do you know when you are feeling defensive?It’s not the emotional response but what you do with it that matters.
3 Ground Rules (Ervin, 2014)Listen to others' perspectives and ideas even when you disagreeBe open to giving and receiving corrective feedbackDon't shut others down—and be aware when you feel shut downRemember:You have the right to “screw up” in an attempt to understand yourself, your reactions, and the larger worldYou have the right to "let it be"
4 We promise to… (Ervin, 2014) Challenge you Encourage critical thinking Push buttons and play “devil's advocate” to encourage multicultural competenceProvide a safe place to do these thingsOur overriding assumptions:We've all internalized “isms.” To work effectively in this field we need to explore, deconstruct, and challenge our personal “isms”There are many ways to learn about “isms”
5 Our GoalsUse General Ethical Principles and guild-specific Code of Ethics to guide a multicultural practice;Describe a positive multicultural approach, as well as reasons for paying attention to multicultural issues;Recognize barriers to developing multicultural competency; andIdentify strategies for teaching and supervising therapy trainees to apply accepted professional principles in determining how multiculturalism is a part of practice and/or an impediment to optimal practice.
6 Positive Multiculturalism Good PracticePositive MulticulturalismEthical Practice
7 Aspirational principles of ethics code (APA, 2010) Beneficence and nonmaleficenceFidelity and responsibilityIntegrityJusticeRespect for people's rights and dignity
8 Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change (APA, 2002)Guideline #1: Psychologists are encouraged to recognize that, as cultural beings, they may hold attitudes and beliefs that can detrimentally influence their perceptions of and interactions with individuals who are ethnically and racially different from themselves. Guideline #2: Psychologists are encouraged to recognize the importance of multicultural sensitivity/responsiveness, knowledge, and understanding about ethnically and racially different individuals. Guideline #5: Psychologists strive to apply culturally-appropriate skills in clinical and other applied psychological practices.American Psychological Association. (2002). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Retrieved from
9 Why is it difficult to see the role of race and culture Why is it difficult to see the role of race and culture? What barriers are there?Empathy for one party is always prejudice against another.– United States Senator Jeff Sessions (R-Ala), July 13, 2009 (cited in Norton & Sommers, 2011)Today the nation is no longer divided along [racial] lines, yet the Voting Rights Act continues to treat it as if it were. –John Roberts (6/2013)
10 Perceived racism (Norton & Sommers, 2011) Blacks continue to indicate drastically poorer outcomes for Black than White Americans: "from employment to police treatment, loan rates to education," yet…Norton, M. I, & Sommers, S. R. (2011). Whites see racism as a zero-sum game that they are losing. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(3), 215–218.we asked a large national sample of Black and White Americans (N +417; Mage = 50.3, SD 1/4 13.6; 57% Female; 209 White, 208 Black) to use a 10-point scale (1 =not at all; 10=very much) to indicate the extent to which they felt both Blacks and Whites were the target of discrimination in each decade from the 1950s to the 2000s.1Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2006). Lay theories about white racists: what constitutes racism (and what doesn't). Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9,
11 Perhaps this reflects perception as a zero sum game (Norton & Sommers, 2011) Norton, M. I, & Sommers, S. R. (2011). Whites see racism as a zero-sum game that they are losing. Perspectives on Psychological Science6(3), 215–218."Perhaps the most problematic implication of these studies for intergroup relations is that those people who are most likely to think racist thoughts or commit racist acts are also the people least likely to see these attitudes and actions as racist…Those people who behave in racists way do not consider those acts to be biased, then attempts at sensitivity training or other prejudice reduction efforts become more difficult. How can individuals learn to avoid discrimination if they are unable or unwilling to recognize it in their own behavior? How can two people-- or groups of people-- discuss and resolve accusations of racisms if they have drastically different ideas of what racism is?" p. 134
12 Seeing multicultural ideas can be difficult Identify situation and assimilate to worldview—unless forced to accommodate.
13 Some definitions: Role of culture Race/ethnicity/gender/class/religion/sexual orientation, etc. influence:preferences, values, habits, goals, etc.how we are seenhow we see othersexperiences of oppression and privilege
14 Some definitions: Multiple identities (Slattery & Park, 2011) Slattery, J. M., & Park, C. L. (2011). Empathic counseling: Meaning, context, ethics, and skill. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
15 What do we see as racism? (Sommers & Norton, 2006) Discomfort/unfamiliarity (e.g., is uncomfortable around Blacks; doesn't socialize regularly with Blacks)Overt racism (e.g., discourages kids from playing with Blacks; thinks Blacks are not suited for certain professions)Denial of problem (e.g., thinks slavery was so long ago it is unimportant to talk about; doesn't speak up or act when someone else is racist)People of Color are more likely to identify subtle forms of bias as racismWhite observers often respond to allegations of subtle bias with skepticism or questions about ulterior motivesSommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2006). Lay theories about white racists: what constitutes racism (and what doesn't). Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9,
16 Microaggressions (Sue et al., 2007) Using racist epithets and offensive language, making racist jokesMaking unwarranted assumptions about a person’s behavior or background because of skin colorSilencing racial minorities by dominating work or classroom discussions or frequently interrupting themTreating a person as a representative of an entire group solely because of skin colorDismissing claims of racismGiving subtle preference to people who share your racial background or skin color
17 Barriers to acknowledging racism? Attitudes are the result of personal experiencePerceive self as an expertExpect a favorable outcome from status quoAttitudes are repeatedly expressedStand to win—or lose—something due to the issue
18 Barriers to change? Anger/discomfort Shame about making mistakes May need to acknowledge/give up privilegeLack of knowledge and self-assessed expertiseQuestions about what should be addressed (and how)
19 White racial identity (Slattery & Park, 2011) ContactDisintegrationReintegrationPseudo-independenceIndependenceDuring the contact phase, Euro Americans are unaware that race has an impact; when they do see the impact of race, they only see it superficially.Euro Americans in disintegration, like People of Color in dissonance, begin to discover that life is unfair, but are unable to make sense of apparently incompatible ideals (e.g., evidence of discrimination with ideals of fairness, honesty, and justice).During reintegration, Euro Americans have resolved this struggle, at least for a while, idealizing their own group while denigrating others. Often this requires selectively perceiving or distorting information (e.g., concluding “that is just the way life is”). These explanations and distortions help resolve the anxiety associated with recognizing injustice.Euro Americans begin to see both Euro Americans and People of Color as varying in “goodness” during pseudo-independence, although they fail to recognize either the privileged positions they hold or the oppressive factors that impact People of Color. They are unable to recognize that Euro Americans have some responsibility for race-related problems and their solution. Positive evaluations depend on a single (Euro American) standard of merit rather than a multiplicity of values.During independence, Euro Americans are increasingly able to recognize racism, think flexibly about their own and other races, and see other people subjectively and as varying rather than as objects in dichotomous categories. They recognize both oppression and privilege and, although they may not become activists, avoid oppressive acts.
21 Problem with self-reports (Banaji & Greenwald, 2013) White liesHow are you?Do I look fat in these?Gray liesCan you spare a dollar?Is Ms. X at home?Colorless liesHow may cigarettes do you smoke a day?Red liesI love you.Blue liesDid you go to church this week?White lies—protect othersGray lies—protect self (to a greater degree than others)Colorless lies—May be unaware of these lies (e.g, that's why we ask people to monitor their pain)Red lies—Promote survival (false claims of wealth or flattery can also do this)Blue lies—as I think it should be (I didn't go to church, but I usually do or I meant to or I know I should)Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York, NY: Delacorte.
23 Shoot or no shoot? (Watt & Sherbourne, in progress) Watt, J., & Sherburne, C. L. (2011). Implicit attitudes as viewed through a shoot-no shoot simulation. (Unpublished manuscript).
24 Reactions to taking Implicit Attitude Test (Casad, Flores, & Didway, 2012) AccurateInaccurateUnsureAfter taking IAT33%46%21%Casad, B. J., Flores, A. J., & Didway, J. D. (2012). Using the Implicit Attitude Test as an unconsciousness raising tool in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 40,
25 Why? (Casad et al., 2012) Reasons given for IAT's invalidity Structure of test is problematic25%In-group preference15%Explicit and implicit attitude incongruence13%Measures cultural stereotypes8%Measures associations, not prejudice6%Measures snap judgmentsCasad, B. J., Flores, A. J., & Didway, J. D. (2012). Using the Implicit Attitude Test as an unconsciousness raising tool in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 40,Fitting it to worldview and assimilating rather than accommodating.This was at beginning, after doing the IAT
26 Reactions to taking Implicit Attitude Test (Casad et al., 2012) AccurateInaccurateUnsureAfter taking IAT33%46%21%After lecture/ reading45%22%Casad, B. J., Flores, A. J., & Didway, J. D. (2012). Using the Implicit Attitude Test as an unconsciousness raising tool in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 40,Relate to supervision
27 What happens when we are colorblind? (Plaut, Thomas, & Goren, 2009) Whites' color blindnessMinorities' psychological engagementMinorities' perception of biasWhites' multiculturalism-.66 ***.57*-.70 **---.54*.54*-.76***Plaut, V. C., Thomas, K. M., & Goren, M. J. (2009). Is multiculturalism or color blindness better for minorities? Psychological Science, 20(4),Respondents were from 18 work units in a large U.S. health care organization* p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001
28 What changes are desirable? KnowledgeAttitudeBut it's probably this intersection that we want—all of these things occurring to a significant degreeSelf-reflectionBehavior
29 What changes? (Pope, 1993; Reynolds, 1997) First-order changes (assimilation)Increased awareness, knowledge, skillsSecond-order change (accommodation)Cognitive restructuringWorldview and paradigm shifts
30 Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson, Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrich, Raths, & Wittrock, 2000)Note: Idea taken from Knapp, Younggren, VandeCreek, Harris, & Martin (2013)Relate to supervision, normalization of processAnderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock. M. C (2000). Taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing, A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
31 Stages of change (Prochaska, 1999) PrecontemplationContemplationActionMaintenancePPAProchaska, J. O. (1999). How do people change, and how can we change to help many more people? In M. A. Hubble, B. L. Duncan, & S. D.Miller (Eds.). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy (pp. 227–255). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.normalization of processPAAP
32 Ethical acculturation model (Handelsman, Gottlieb, & Knapp, 2005) Personal EthicsHighLowAssimilationIntegrationMarginalizationSeparationProfessional EthicsModification of Berry's Acculturation Model.Handelsman, M. M., Gottlieb, M. C., & Knapp, S. (2005). Training ethical psychologists: An acculturation model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 59–65.
33 Our modification Personal Commitment to Multicultural Competence High LowAssimilationIntegrationMarginalizationSeparationProfessional CommitmentModification of Berry's Acculturation Model.Handelsman, M. M., Gottlieb, M. C., & Knapp, S. (2005). Training ethical psychologists: An acculturation model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 59–65.
34 Recommendations from our experience Start where you areFoster sensitivity to signs of own biasesEngage in empathy-inducing activitiesExploration of aesthetic traditions from other countriesDirect engagement in perspective-broadening activitiesContact with situations causing cognitive dissonancePerform psychosocial histories of clients (seeing beyond symptoms)Some other recommendations that need to be fleshed out.What things do you do that are useful?
35 Goals for effective therapists-in- context Acknowledge that all helping occurs in a contextAttend to one’s own context, assumptions, and biases on ongoing basisRecognize that different people may draw different conclusions under “similar” circumstances due to different cultures/contextsRemain attentive to attitudes and actions related to therapist’s ongoing multicultural developmentConsider how multiculturalism modifies/enhances theoretical and practical dimensions of therapyRead professional literature with an eye to multicultural issuesRead the news, stay current with cultural issues to be able to perceive culture-influenced issues readily
36 Questions to consider with client What is the client’s unique cultural perspective about the world and self?How does culture/context influence the symptoms or problems?How does culture factor in the client’s decision to seek treatment?How might this client might perceive therapist as a result of multicultural factors?What opportunities?What barriers?How does culture influence the therapeutic alliance?What parts of the client’s unique cultural perspective pose difficulties for the therapist?
37 Multiculturally-informed issues for treatment Identify and explore microaggressions, oppression, and privilegeAssist clients in understanding implications of their worldviewPromote consideration of costs and benefits of culture-related choicesEmpower clients in making conscious choices that are valid from their own context and culture
38 The Color of Fear http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vAbpJW_xEc Streaming film available at The Color of Fear, Edited by Richard Bock, The Color of Fear is a powerful movie examining closely the issue of racism. Considered by many to be the best film of its kind, exploring the conscious and unconscious behavior of racism. It has been seen by millions of people around the world and was featured on the Oprah Winfrey Show. For more info-Stirfryseminars.comThe Color of Fear
39 Resnick: And so you thought that your children, all five of your children, somehow because of what you saw as your defective mothering, were not on the path of righteousness and were stumbling. [Hmm] And did you feel then that it was good for them or bad for them, if you in fact threw them into the sea—or in a bathtub—in a very real sense? What were you trying to accomplish then when you did take your children’s lives? Yates: Maybe in their innocent years … God would take them up. Resnick: It would be their innocent years and God would take them up? Is that what you said? Yates: Be with him. Uh huh. Resnick: God would take them up to be with Him in heaven? Is that what you mean? [Uh huh.] All right. And if you had not taken their lives, what did you think would happen to them? Yates: Guess they would have continued stumbling. Resnick: And where would they end up? Yates: Hell.Andrea YatesAndrea Yates Confession. (2001, July 14). Clip 8. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved fromcom/s/chron/Houston_Chronicle/ high.mov.html
40 Lia Lee and her motherFadiman, A. (1998). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down
41 Henry Louis Gates Jr.The police responded to Gates's house after neighbor Lucia Whalen reported spotting 'two black males with backpacks' trying to gain entry to the home (Gates, returning home from a trip overseas, and his driver were contending with a stuck front door). The Cambridge Police Department reports, authored by Sergeant James Crowley and Officer James Figueroa, quote an incensed Gates yelling, 'This is what happens to black men in America!,' and, when asked by Crowley to speak with him outside the residence, Gates replied, 'ya, I'll speak with your mama outside.' A disorderly conduct rap was filed against Gates, but quickly dropped by prosecutors.Gates has hosted several PBS television miniseries, including the history and travel program Wonders of the African World and the biographical African American Lives and Faces of America., Director of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Researchnews.harvard.edu
42 ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2002). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Retrieved from American Psychological Association. (2010).Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York, NY: Delacorte. Casad, B. J., Flores, A. J., & Didway, J. D. (2012). Using the Implicit Attitude Test as an unconsciousness raising tool in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 40, Handelsman, M. M., Gottlieb, M. C., & Knapp, S. (2005). Training ethical psychologists: An acculturation model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 59–65.
43 References (cont.)Norton, M. I, & Sommers, S. R. (2011). Whites see racism as a zero-sum game that they are losing. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(3), 215–218.Plaut, V. C., Thomas, K. M., & Goren, M. J. (2009). Is multiculturalism or color blindness better for minorities? Psychological Science, 20(4),Prochaska, J. O. (1999). How do people change, and how can we change to help many more people? In M. A. Hubble, B. L. Duncan, & S. D. Miller (Eds.). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy (pp. 227–255). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Slattery, J. M., & Park, C. L. (2011). Empathic counseling: Meaning, context, ethics, and skill. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Sommers, S. R., & Norton, M. I. (2006). Lay theories about white racists: What constitutes racism (and what doesn't). Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9,Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. M. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62,Watt, J., & Sherburne, C. L. (2011). Implicit attitudes as viewed through a shoot-no shoot simulation. (Unpublished manuscript).
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