4Stratification and Inequality Examining the Implications ofClass, Race, and Gender
5Socialization Socialization Agents of socialization The life-long process of learning cultureAgents of socializationFamily, schools, work, peer groups, media, religion, etc.
6Constructing Identity: The “Self” The “Self” (George Herbert Mead)Infants only know the “I.” Through social interaction, however, they learn the “me”—the self as a distinct object to be perceived by others“Looking Glass Self” (Charles Horton Cooley)Sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others. OR “we see ourselves as we think others see us.”
7Becoming who we are, finding our “self,” is always a social process.
8Roles and Identity Formation Expected patterns of behavior for a particular social statusRole TakingKey to our identity and concepts of self because, we often see ourselves from the perspective of others
9How do you suppose these people “see” themselves?
18Learning Culture and Our Place In It “We willingly play the roles we find ourselves in.” – P. Berger (1963)We come to accept and expect the position which we occupy. Tastes, hobbies, careers, goals, and aspirations, who we partner with, etc.
20Social Stratification Ranking system of groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society
21Systems of Stratification SlaveryEconomic form of inequality in which some people are the property of othersCasteHierarchical stratification based on ascription (e.g. elite, warrior, merchant, servant, untouchable)ClassStratification based on wealth, income, education, and occupation; (SES) socioeconomic status.
22Theories of Stratification Functionalist TheoriesHighest rewards (e.g. salaries and prestige) are given to most important positions in society ensuring the most qualified people occupy these positionsConflict TheoriesStratification reflects unequal distribution of power in society that serves the interests of those at the top
24What are some ways in which gender is learned? Learning GenderWhat’s the difference between “sex” and “gender”?Sex = reproductive organs, male/female/etc.Gender = socially significant aspects, social constructGender specific socializationIn familyIn schoolsIn workplacesWhere else?What are some ways in which gender is learned?
29In our culture, “whiteness” has historically been “normalized.” Race is socially significant. As such it shapes our identity and our social location.In our culture, “whiteness” has historically been “normalized.”The default race has privileges
32Racial Prejudice vs. Racism From Beverly Tatum’s, Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?Racial Prejudiceany preconceived opinion, either favorable or unfavorable, based on one’s raceRacisma system of institutional policies and cultural messages that is advantageous to white people and disadvantageous to people of color (e.g. housing, jobs)prejudice + power
33Personal Racial Prejudice vs. Institutional Racism We often focus on the racist actions of individuals rather than the institutions that maintain and perpetuate racial inequalityFor example…
34Disparities in Drug Sentencing as an Example of Institutionalized Racism About 14 million Whites and 2.6 million African Americans report using illegal drugsAfrican Americans represent about 12% of the total population of drug users, but 38% of those arrested for drug offenses, and 59% of those in state prison for a drug offenseAfrican Americans serve virtually as much time in prison for a drug offense (58.7 months) as whites do for a violent offense (61.7 months) (Info from NAACP and the Sentencing Project)
35Disparities in Drug Sentencing as an Example of Institutionalized Racism Powder vs. Crack CocaineUsed to be a 100 to 1 disparity in sentencingAs of 2010 Congress voted to change the law to decrease the disparity. They changed it to…18 to 1 disparity in sentencing!!! WHAT!!!?The majority of cocaine users, both crack and powder, are white. But the majority of people convicted for cocaine are people of color. And crack has historically been concentrated in African American communities.
36Let’s talk a little more about incarceration in the United States:
37Incarceration Trends in the US From 1980 to 2008, the number of people incarcerated in America quadrupled-from roughly 500,000 to 2.3 million peopleToday, the US is 5% of the world’s population and has 25% of the world’s prisonersCombining the number of people in prison and jail with those under parole or probation supervision, 1 in every 31 adults, or 3.2 percent of the population is under some form of correctional control
38Racial Disparities in Incarceration African Americans now constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated populationAfrican Americans are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whitesBlack and Latino Americans make up about 30% of the US population but about 60% of those incarcerated
39Racial Disparities in Incarceration One in six black men had been incarcerated as of If current trends continue, one in three black males born today can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetimeNationwide, African-Americans represent 26% of juvenile arrests, 44% of youth who are detained, 46% of the youth who are judicially waived to criminal court, and 58% of the youth admitted to state prisons (Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice)
40White PrivilegeIt isn’t that all white people are to blame for discrimination; most are not. But white people nevertheless benefit from racism.And I’m not just talking about incarceration! White privilege applies to jobs, housing, racial profiling while driving or at the store, etc. It is hard to see it, but it is happening all the time.[This is just as true in the case of male privilege, heterosexual privilege, or any other form of privilege.]
41Active Racism vs. Passive Racism blatant, intentional acts of racial prejudiceE.g. not serving black people at your restaurantPassive racismmore subtle forms of racismE.g. laughing at racist jokes, not challenging exclusionary hiring practices, accepting as appropriate the omission of the history of people of color in the curriculum
42Active Anti-RacismEveryone needs to take an active anti-racist stance. But white people can play an especially powerful role since they have more access to the societal institutions in need of being changed.
43Not All People “Of Color” Are Equally Targeted By Racism Other factors intersect and matter! Like what?ClassSexGenderSexual orientationCountry of origin / immigration statusEtc.
44Social ClassGroup of people who share similar economic/social/political position in societyMeasures: income, wealth, occupational prestige, educational attainment, culture, tasteSES: socioeconomic statusWealth = All assets owned by an individual including cash, savings, investments in property, stocks, bonds, etc.Income = All wages and salaries earned from paid occupation. Also interest on savings.
46Learning Class Social Class affects values E.g. Respecting conformity, not questioning authorityOur class background shapes our:OpportunitiesAspirationsExpectationsSocial Class helps determine the options we consider on the menu of life
48Inequality and Life Chances Working class and poor people are:Less likely to go to collegeMore likely to get arrested, convicted, go to prison, and receive the death penalty than upper class peopleMore likely to die prematurely
59How many of you consider yourselves to be feminists?
60Gender Stratification Social system in which socio-economic resources and political power are distributed on the basis of one’s sex and gender
61Wage Gap On average women earn .81 cents for every $1 a man earns This applies to men and women doing equal work!Why does the gender gap in pay persist?Occupational segregationDiscriminationInstitutional Sexism
62Housework – “The Second Shift” Women still do majority of household work, including caring for childrenWomen working full time outside the home spend on average 19 hours/week on housework; men average 10 hours/weekThis work is essential for society!
64Rape as Social Control (IN THE US!!!) Unlike men, women must worry about walking alone at nightRape is used in war to terrorize and punishWhy no “War Against Rape” ?1 in 4 women are sexually assaulted in their lifetime(IN THE US!!!)1 in 6 women will be the victim of attempted or completed rape1 in 4 women in college are victims of rapeOnly 5% actually report the crime!!!82% of sexual assaults are by people who know the victim
66ReflectWhere do you fit in on the spectrum of social class and privilege?What group or groups are you a part of?What roles or identities do you take on?How are your own social class/race/gender attitudes and opportunities shaping your life?