3The idea of “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans was established in the Supreme Court decision ___________ v._____________.____________ was a system of separation by race.NAME TWO LAWS TO RESTRICT VOTING3.4.NAME THE LAW THAT EXEMPTS WHITES FROM VOTING RESTRICTIONS:5.
6REALITY: facilities were never equal Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)Segregation by race is constitutional as long as facilities are separate, but equalREALITY: facilities were never equal14th AMENDMENTSection 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. COURT INTERPRETS THIS TO ALLOW PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS TO DISCRIMINATE!!!
7ONLY ONE Justice dissented - Justice John Harlan "Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law...In my opinion, the judgment this day rendered will, in time, prove to be quite as pernicious as the decision made by this tribunal in the Dred Scott case...The present decision, it may well be apprehended, will not only stimulate aggressions, more or less brutal and irritating, upon the admitted rights of colored citizens, but will encourage the belief that it is possible, by means of state enactments, to defeat the beneficent purposes which the people of the United States had in view when they adopted the recent amendments of the Constitution."
8DISCRIMINATION AGAINST AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE SOUTH:segregation and discrimination was not only permitted, IT WAS THE LAW (de jure)IN THE NORTH:segregation and discrimination were not legalized, but commonly practiced(de facto)
9Explain how segregation and discrimination affected the lives of African Americans at the turn of the century.
10DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MEXICAN AMERICANS Many Mexicans hired to work in mining, irrigation, and farming in the SouthwestMany Mexicans suffer under debt peonage (=sharecropping)Debt peonage not made illegal until 1911
11Chinese Exclusion Act - 1882 Great Railroad Strike of 1877!!!Strike failed b/c of disunity b/w Chinese & IrishCongress passes Chinese Exclusion Act to halt Chinese immigration. Pres. Hayes vetoes the popular bill.Passes after Hayes leaves office & in effect until 1943.
1413.1 HW, #1Why do you think that the assimilation policy of the Dawes Act failed? Support your opinion with information from the text.
15Grant Administration President during the “Gilded Age” Time of the robber barons and political machines/corruptionGrant (Republican) wins 214 electoral votes to Seymour’s (Democrat) 80NOTE: Grant only wins popular vote by 300,000SIGNIFICANCE: The approx. 600,000 to 700,000 Freedmen’s votes swing election to Grant.
16Gilded AgeFrom 1865 to 1871, Boss Tweed and his cronies stole millions of dollars from the city treasury. Convicted of forgery and larceny in 1873, Tweed was released in Immediately rearrested on civil charges, he was allowed daily visits to his family in the company of his jailor. On one of these trips, Tweed made his escape. – Library of Congress
17Grant AdministrationGrant – Popular soldier, inept (corrupt?) politicianGrant’s Cabinet and Administration famous for graft, corruption and nepotism (his wife’s family)Despite, numerous scandals and charges of incompetence, Grant is reelected in 1872!
18The Grant administration had already undergone the embarrassment of a slew of scandals—Credit Mobilier, Sanborn Contracts, Whiskey Ring, Navy Contracts, Emma Silver Mine, and others—and the Senate was trying Grant’s secretary of war, William Belknap, who had been impeached by the House in March. Realizing their opportunity to gain political capital for the fall 1876 elections, the Democrats expanded the investigations, including an attempt to impeach the president.
19Crédit Mobilier Scandal Basically a “front company” formed by the financiers/builders of the Transcontinental RailroadInsiders of the Union Pacific Railroad hired and paid themselves as much as $50,000 a mile for construction that cost $30,000.Stock was sold to influential Congressmen to keep them quiet.New York Sun unearthed the scandal and kept attention on the “Trial of Innocents” = public figures in the Grant Administration and Congress that were involved. Only 2 Congressmen formally censured. Even Vice President Colfax escaped serious charges.