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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 3: Race and Immigration

3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Defining Race and Ethnicity Race The division of people based on certain physical characteristics Ethnicity The classification of people who share a common cultural, linguistic, or ancestral heritage U.S. Census Bureau outlines six different racial categories With immigration, population growth, and intermarriage, physical traits may no longer be relied upon to determine identity

4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

5 Majority and Minority Groups Majority Group Not only has greater numerical representation in society but also holds significant power and privilege Minority Group Refers to any group that holds less power than the majority group Often experience unequal treatment compared to dominant group, giving them collective sense of discrimination With aid of migration patterns, minority groups gaining greater representation within U.S. population

6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Armenian Genocide Genocide Attempt to destroy or exterminate a people based on their race or ethnicity Armenian American protesters received recognition during the 2008 election campaign Barack Obama pledged to officially recognize the genocide if elected Remembrance Day, came and went without official U.S. recognition of the genocide Obama delivered statement which spoke of the meds yeghem (“great calamity”) of the Armenian people He did not use the word genocide, which would be offensive to Turkish government

7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Racism Prejudice that asserts members of one race are inferior to another Makes them less worthy of fair treatment In US, racism long used to justify mistreatment of certain groups of people From Native Americans to African Americans to immigrant laborers Hate groups Organizations that promote hostility or violence toward others based on race and other factors, perpetuate racism

8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Prejudice vs. Discrimination Prejudice Usually refers to rigid generalizations, often negative, about an entire category of people Minority groups often face prejudice from dominant group Stereotypes Simplified and extreme perceptions people have of an entire group Usually based on false assumptions and reinforces prejudice

9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Discrimination Deliberate and unfair treatment of people based on a prejudice 2006 film Glory Road Perfect example of how prejudiced attitudes can lead to discrimination Portrayal of prejudice and discrimination based on overly simplistic stereotypes

10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Institutional Discrimination in the US Institutional Discrimination Maintains advantage for dominant group while providing appearance of fairness to others Personal biases carry over into structures of society and often go unnoticed by others who don’t even hold those views Evidenced by the Jim Crow laws of the early to mid-1900s Caused disparities in institutions such as education and housing

11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Causes for Prejudice and Discrimination John Dollard Suggests that frustration leads to prejudice In situations in which we feel powerless: Scapegoat Unfairly accuse another group as being the cause of our problem Studies support the notion prejudice is learned Assuming prejudice is a learned behavior, it can be unlearned

12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Minority Success Many minorities, despite suffering from prejudice and discrimination, become successful Beverly Tatum Assimilation Blues: Black Families in a White Community Investigates what it means to be black and middle class in a mostly white neighborhood

13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued W.E.B. DuBois Families experience Double Consciousness Must live in a white and black world and be able to keep these worlds separate

14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Ellis Cose The Rage of the Privileged Class Issues that even the most successful African Americans must confront Inability to fit in Lack of respect Low expectations Faint praise Identity troubles Self-censorship and silence Collective guilt Exclusion from the club

15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Racial Stratification in the United States We live in a free society that claims to be equal There are still significant disparities between racial groups Some minorities tend to be overrepresented in poverty statistics African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanics Cycle of Poverty Makes it difficult for people to break into the middle class if their parents were poor

16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

17 Continued One of the most important factors in determining income is education Minorities made up only 15 percent of faculty members in U.S. colleges and universities in 2003

18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

19 Immigration Immigration is one issue that can create racial and ethnic tension Voluntary Immigration Refers to the willing movement of people from one society to another Involuntary Immigration Refers to the forced movement of people from one society to another

20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Who Migrates and Why? Labor immigrants—legal and undocumented Migrate because they are seeking work Professional Immigrants Doctors and engineers Possess some skill or profession needed in the United States Drawback is the “brain drain”: best and brightest of poorer nations leave their countries to live in the United States Entrepreneurial Immigrants Seek to own their own businesses Refugees People seeking safety and freedom

21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Is Immigration a Social Problem? Each major wave of new immigrants experiences a backlash from the dominant group in society Anti-immigrant sentiment in US evidenced by number of anti-immigration groups currently active Immigration always been a source of conflict

22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Ethnocentrism Thinking about or defining another culture on the basis of your own Most of us in some way are ethnocentric View world from our point of view and see groups with greater differences from us more negatively

23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Ethnic Enclaves Discrimination encourages sense of solidarity among members of single racial or ethnic group Ethnic Enclaves Neighborhoods where people from similar cultures live together 3 main reasons Differences from dominant group often lead to discrimination Shared values of similar people make adjustment easier Social capital increases their chances of success

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Living in an enclave Person who enters a new country with very little money, few resources, and limited knowledge of new culture can increase chances of success Belonging to a group that looks like dominant group tends to decrease discrimination Many groups now considered “white” initially suffered discrimination Let go of their ethnic heritage because their appearance makes it easier to assimilate into the dominant culture

25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

26 Symbolic Interactionism: Color-blind Racism Symbolic interactionists stress importance of symbolism and language in creation of society Color-blind Racism Idea that racism still exists in more subtle ways Many people of color in the United States remain in disadvantaged positions poorer, achieve lower educational outcomes, live shorter lives, attend underfunded schools, experience problems with assimilation, and generally believe that police and other social institutions work to increase their disadvantage

27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Eduardo Bonilla-Silva Suggests color-blind racism occurs when whites use a series of excuses to justify status quo and keep races separate Color-blind racism excuses racist tendencies under the guise that we are color blind

28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Four key factors: Whites hold onto ideals such as equality, individualism, and choice in effort to explain why racial groups are disadvantaged White people often use cultural stereotypes to rationalize racial inequality False belief that segregation is a personal choice Many whites in US believe racism is a thing of the past and deny it has any impact on minorities’ lives today

29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Laissez-faire Racism Notion that blacks are responsible for their own problems, particularly economic ones and no longer deserve government help and support Despite obvious structural problems of the poor and minorities Choices people make occur within a social context

30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Functionalism: The Interaction of Culture and Structure Sociologist William J. Wilson Overt racism has declined in US Forms of institutional racism continue to affect schools, jobs, health care, and other aspects of the lives of poor and minority members Inner-city youths develop cultural values counterproductive to achieving success Cannot ignore reality of structural racism Yet out of these structures spring cultures that can lead the individual to poor choices and negative outcomes

31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Elijah Anderson Code of the Street: Decency, Violence and the Moral Life of the Inner City Inner-city youths often adopt this code Alternative to pro-social paths to success Focuses: Appearing tough Having the “right” look Talking in the “right” way Inner-city youths frequently develop negative attitudes toward authority, police, and education Attitudes hinder ability to assimilate into larger culture

32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Social structures of poverty, crime, and joblessness help create “code of the street” culture This culture supports preexisting stereotypes that allow poverty in the first place Racism is rooted in the structures of society Change in those structures required to attack it Election of a “black” president may go a long way toward combating negative stereotypes

33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Conflict Theory Accusations of racial prejudice common in many areas of society American Idol W.E.B. DuBois African Americans will always be faced with a dominant majority that wants to exploit them To survive They develop a double consciousness Make a distinction between two worlds: one white and one black Minorities may unconsciously adopt racist attitudes held by dominant group

34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued DuBois’s classical ideas also apply to study of other minority groups Sociologists find that members of dominant group do not think much about race

35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Social Problems and Racial Segregation People who are discriminated against often separated from dominant group Housing, workplace, and social settings Enforced separation called Segregation When factors of race, gender, or ethnicity involved Massey and Denton Blacks of various income levels experience similar segregation from whites Racial segregation linked to a number of factors, including personal choice

36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Immigration Control and Immigration Issues Current issue facing United States is illegal immigration U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Tasked with securing nation’s borders between Canada, Mexico, and other coastal areas Responsible for safely processing international travelers through U.S. Customs 2008 Welcomed more than 400 million people into US

37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Multiculturalism and Assimilation Multiculturalism Concept that supports inherent value of different cultures within society Proponents think that immigrants should maintain links to original culture while integrating into new culture Opponents worry that this practice keeps groups from adapting to dominant culture

38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Assimilation Process by which minority groups adopt patterns of dominant culture Can be voluntary but can be enforced by social policies “English Only” laws Rapid Assimilation Occurs when minority group completely abandons its previous culture in favor of new one Native American children

39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Continued Segmented Assimilation There is more than one way to adapt to a new land and become economically and socially successful Alejandro Portes Cultural elements to which immigrants are exposed are of particular importance Successful assimilation depends on being exposed to the right elements of a new culture, not just any elements of a new culture

40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.


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