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From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity and Inclusion ~at every level of the system ~at every level of our party! The Challenges of Putting Policy.

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Presentation on theme: "From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity and Inclusion ~at every level of the system ~at every level of our party! The Challenges of Putting Policy."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity and Inclusion ~at every level of the system ~at every level of our party! The Challenges of Putting Policy into Practice Karen R. Mock LPC(O)~ May 2012

2 “Culture” of the Session Respect Examine Support Participate Educate Communicate Think

3 What ARE the Challenges?

4 I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant

5 Before “Multiculturalism” Where have we been? 2 “founding” nations i.e. the 2 largest “minority” groups 1960’s – the Quiet Revolution – the Quiet Revolution – the Bilingual and Bicultural Commission – the Bilingual and Bicultural Commission (B & B Report) (B & B Report) - a “third voice” heard! - a “third voice” heard! - multiculturalism acknowledged as a reality within the bilingual framework - multiculturalism acknowledged as a reality within the bilingual framework

6 National and International Obligations 1970’s 1970’s -hate laws adopted as amendments to criminal code, hate propaganda a criminal offense - Canada ratifies the International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD adopted by the UN in 1965, signed by Canada in 1966) - Canadian Human Rights Act

7 Multiculturalism Policy Multiculturalism declared an official policy of Canada Multiculturalism declared an official policy of Canada Support provided for : Support provided for : - heritage languages - ethnocultural community activities - settlement and integration - “Celebrating our Differences”

8 Ontario Leads the Way… “Now is Not Too Late” – Walter Pitman “ We are all Immigants to this place” – Toronto Board - Report on Multiculturalism - Report on Race Relations (development of policies to promote equality in the system, procedures for handling inter-ethnic tensions and racial incidents when they occur)

9 Charter, Codes and Commissions 1980’s 1980’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms! Ontario Human Rights Code “Equality Now!” Task Force “Employment Equity” Commission “Who Gets the Work?” +Urban Alliance on Race Relations, Ontario Multicultural Association, Ontario Multicultural Anti-Racist Educators’ Network, Local, Provincial and Federal Advisory Committees and Councils, etc. etc. etc….

10 The challenge of putting policy into practice Evaluation of implementation of multiculturalism and race relations policies disappointing by mid ’80’s Evaluation of implementation of multiculturalism and race relations policies disappointing by mid ’80’s Resistance to organizational change Resistance to organizational change Marginalization of staff and advocacy leaders – parents and community groups Marginalization of staff and advocacy leaders – parents and community groups Backlogs as harassment and violence against minorities increase Backlogs as harassment and violence against minorities increase

11 Further Studies and Reports “Towards a Model Race Relations Policy” (1986) “Towards a Model Race Relations Policy” (1986) (OHRC/Citizenship and Culture/Education) (OHRC/Citizenship and Culture/Education) “Access to Government Services by Racial Minorities” (1987) “Access to Government Services by Racial Minorities” (1987) “Race Relations Training Manual” (1988) “Race Relations Training Manual” (1988) “Implementing Race and Ethnocultural Equity Policy in Ontario School Boards” (1989) “Implementing Race and Ethnocultural Equity Policy in Ontario School Boards” (1989) Task Force on Race Relations and Policing Task Force on Race Relations and Policing Ongoing Curriculum, Resources and Ongoing Curriculum, Resources and Policy Development Policy Development

12 From Multiculturalism to Anti-Racism to Equity Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1988 Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1988 Anti-Racism Secretariat Anti-Racism Secretariat Employment Equity Policy Employment Equity Policy Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Departments Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Departments Stephen Lewis Commission (1992) Stephen Lewis Commission (1992) Memorandum 119 (1993) Memorandum 119 (1993) more challenges in practice

13 Human Rights, Anti-Racism and Equity 40 years later…. Why aren’t the ISms WASms? (CRRF/TDSB, 2003) (CRRF/TDSB, 2003)

14 Backtracking Feelings of frustration, anger, betrayal Feelings of frustration, anger, betrayal Fiscal restraint – cutbacks on “soft” areas Fiscal restraint – cutbacks on “soft” areas Recession leads to ethnocentrism Recession leads to ethnocentrism Backlash and scapegoating minorities and immigrants; repeal of key legislation Backlash and scapegoating minorities and immigrants; repeal of key legislation Changing demographics ( Ethnic Diversity Survey) Changing demographics ( Ethnic Diversity Survey) International rise in racism and violence International rise in racism and violence Increasing divisiveness between and within communities Increasing divisiveness between and within communities

15 Protection, Prevention and Partnerships Protection, Prevention and Partnerships gave way to Competition, Contention and Controversy! Competition, Contention and Controversy!

16 Multiculturalism, Race Relations and Equity Issues - Four Broad Areas - 1) Attitudes and Beliefs 2) Interpersonal Relations on the Job 3) Provision of Service 4) Institutional Barriers to Equality/Equity

17 INCLUSION “Inclusion is not bringing people into what already exists, it is making a new space, a better space for everyone” “Inclusion is not bringing people into what already exists, it is making a new space, a better space for everyone” Dr. George Safa Dei Dr. George Safa Dei

18 MULTICULTURALISM DO UNTO OTHERS AS THEY WOULD HAVE YOU DO UNTO THEM RACE RELATIONS …

19 ANTI-DISCRIMINATION A perspective that permeates all policies & practices, aimed at eradicating discrimination in all its various forms. A perspective that permeates all policies & practices, aimed at eradicating discrimination in all its various forms. stereotyping prejudice racism Systemic discrimination

20 Equity A term used to denote fair, inclusive and respectful treatment of all people, with regard to age, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, creed and the other grounds of prohibited discrimination in the human rights code, as well as any other similar factor.* Equity programs are designed to remove barriers to equality by identifying and eliminating discriminatory policies and practices. A term used to denote fair, inclusive and respectful treatment of all people, with regard to age, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, creed and the other grounds of prohibited discrimination in the human rights code, as well as any other similar factor.* Equity programs are designed to remove barriers to equality by identifying and eliminating discriminatory policies and practices. *Any other similar factor is to be interpreted in a manner similar to ‘analagous grounds’ in Section 15(1) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

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22 FOUR ASPECTS OF DISCRIMINATION SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION policies, practices Racism, sexism, antisemitism, islamophobia, homophobia, etc. DISCRIMINATION BEHAVIOUR, ACTION BELIEFS, ATTITUDES PREJUDICE “pre-judge” STEREOTYPING “ set Image” Adapted from B. Thomas and C. Novogrodsky (1983) Combatting Racism in the Workplace

23 CLARIFYING TERMINOLOGY Racism Racism Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. It is the combination of racial prejudice + institutional power that is used to deny or grant people and groups of people rights, respect, representation and resources based on their race, colour or ethnicity. Racism is manifested through individual action and/or institutional policies and practices. It extends beyond prejudiced beliefs to actions (whether intended or not) that maintain and ensure the continuation of privileged relationships and supports the racial status quo. Racism is the belief that one race is superior to another. It is the combination of racial prejudice + institutional power that is used to deny or grant people and groups of people rights, respect, representation and resources based on their race, colour or ethnicity. Racism is manifested through individual action and/or institutional policies and practices. It extends beyond prejudiced beliefs to actions (whether intended or not) that maintain and ensure the continuation of privileged relationships and supports the racial status quo.

24 Antisemitism Antisemitism Coined in the late nineteenth century, the term antisemitic was applied directly to hatred of Jews and not of all Semitic peoples. Today, antisemitism refers to latent or overt hostility or hatred directed towards individual Jews or the Jewish people -- anti-Jewish oppression -- leading to social, economic, institutional, religious, cultural or political discrimination. Antisemitism has also been expressed through individual acts of harassment, physical violence, vandalism, the organized destruction of entire communities and genocide. Coined in the late nineteenth century, the term antisemitic was applied directly to hatred of Jews and not of all Semitic peoples. Today, antisemitism refers to latent or overt hostility or hatred directed towards individual Jews or the Jewish people -- anti-Jewish oppression -- leading to social, economic, institutional, religious, cultural or political discrimination. Antisemitism has also been expressed through individual acts of harassment, physical violence, vandalism, the organized destruction of entire communities and genocide.

25 Islamophobia Islamophobia A term recently coined to refer to expressions of negative stereotypes, bias or acts of hostility towards individual Muslims or followers of Islam in general. In the aftermath of September 11, 2001, there have been heightened attacks and violence on individuals who identify as Muslim or are thought to be followers of Islam. Individuals of South Asian or Arab descent, whether they are Muslim or not, have been the targets of harassment, racial profiling, prejudice and discrimination. Some attacks have been directed at places of worship, and stereotyped media portrayal often equates Islam with terrorism.

26 Heterosexism/Homophobia Heterosexism/Homophobia An ideological system and patterns of individual or institutionalized oppression which deny, denigrate and stigmatize any non- heterosexual form of behaviour, identity, relationship or community (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-Spirited, Queer, Questioning…) An ideological system and patterns of individual or institutionalized oppression which deny, denigrate and stigmatize any non- heterosexual form of behaviour, identity, relationship or community (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, Two-Spirited, Queer, Questioning…)

27 DIVERSITY The presence of a wide range of human qualities and attributes within a group, organization or society. The dimensions of diversity include, but are not limited to ancestry, culture, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, language, physical and intellectual ability, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, and socio-economic status. The presence of a wide range of human qualities and attributes within a group, organization or society. The dimensions of diversity include, but are not limited to ancestry, culture, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, language, physical and intellectual ability, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, and socio-economic status.

28 EQUITY A condition or state of fair, inclusive and respectful treatment of all people. Equity does not mean treating people the same without regard for individual differences. A condition or state of fair, inclusive and respectful treatment of all people. Equity does not mean treating people the same without regard for individual differences.

29 CIRCLE OF ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS DISCRIMINATIONPREJUDICE SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATIONSTEREOTYPE

30 How Can You Identify Discrimination?

31 HUMAN RIGHTS CODE: PROHIBITED GROUNDS RACE RACE ANCESTRY ANCESTRY PLACE OF ORIGIN PLACE OF ORIGIN COLOUR COLOUR ETHNIC ORIGIN ETHNIC ORIGIN CITIZENSHIP CITIZENSHIP CREED CREED SEX SEX SEXUAL ORIENTATION SEXUAL ORIENTATION HANDICAP HANDICAP AGE AGE MARITAL STATUS MARITAL STATUS FAMILY STATUS FAMILY STATUS RECORD OF OFFENCES RECORD OF OFFENCES

32 HARASSMENT  Any comment or conduct by a supervisor or co-worker which is intimidating, ongoing hurtful or malicious in intent.  Persistent, uncalled for an unwelcome disparaging behaviour by one person towards another.  A course of vexatious comment or conduct that is known or ought reasonably known to be unwelcome.  Unwanted sexual solicitations or advances made by a person in a position to confer, grant or deny a benefit because an advance has been refused.

33 SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCLUDES:  UNNECESSARY TOUCHING OR PATTING  SUGGESTIVE OR OTHER SEXUALLY AGGRESSIVE REMARKS  LEERING (SUGGESTIVE STARING) AT A PERSON’S BODY  DEMANDS FOR SEXUAL FAVOURS  COMPROMISING INVITATIONS  PHYSICAL ASSAULT The

34 RACIAL/ ETHNIC/RELIGIOUS HARASSMENT INCLUDES:  UNWELCOME REMARKS, JOKES, INNUENDOS, OR TAUNTS ABOUT A PERSON’S RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND, COLOUR, PLACE OF BIRTH, CITIZENSHIP, OR ANCESTRY  THE DISPLAY OF RACIST, DEROGATORY, OR OFFENSIVE PICTURES OR MATERIAL  REFUSAL TO CONVERSE OR WORK WITH AN EMPLOYEE BECAUSE OF THAT EMPLOYEE’S RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC BACKGROUND  USING INSULTING FEATURES OR PLAYING PRACTICAL JOKES WHICH, BECAUSE THEY ARE BASED ON RACIAL, RELIGIOUS OR ETHNIC GROUNDS, CAUSE EMBARRASSMENT OR AWKWARDNESS  PHYSICAL ABUSE  PERSISTENT, ON-GOING COMMUNICATION (IN ANY FORM) OF NEGATIVE ATTITUDES, BELIEFS OR ACTIONS TOWARDS AN INDIVIDUAL GROUP WITH THE INTENTION OF PLACING THAT IN A DISPARAGING ROLE

35 RACISM IN THE WORKPLACE  Racial jokes, slurs, verbal abuse  Graffiti  Interracial conflicts / harassment by co-workers  Grouping / isolation  Under-employment  Ghettoization in job categories  Promotion problems (performance review, the glass ceiling, the sticky floor)  Under-representation of racial minorities at the executive level in the unions  ‘No problem’ syndrome

36 HANDLING RACIAL INCIDENTS  DON’T LET A RACIAL SLUR PASS UNCHALLENGED  DON’T OVERREACT WITH ANOTHER PUT-DOWN  DON’T EMBARRASS THE OFFENDER PUBLICLY  DON’T MAKE OTHERS SCAPEGOATS FOR YOUR FRUSTRATIONS  DON’T LET INTANGIBLE FEARS BLOCK YOUR ABILITY TO ACT  DO VALUE THE FEELINGS OF OTHERS BY ACTIVE LISTENING  DO REMEMBER ATTACKERS FEEL THEMSELVES VICTIMS TOO  DO SUPPORT THE VICTIM, AND GIVE CONSEQUENCES/COUNSELLING TO THE ATTACKER AND BYSTANDER(S) Source: Slurs, Stereotypes and Prejudice Stern, D., Mackenzie, H. Stern, D., Mackenzie, H.

37 RACIAL/ETHNIC JOKES Consider all racial or ethnic jokes: “ Did you hear about the (Black Jew, Newfie, Polok Scotsman, Chinaman, Catholic)…? All racial/ethnic jokes contain a slur, i.e. an insult toward those who are members of a particular racial or ethnic group.

38 All racial/ethnic jokes are based on a stereotype describing a characteristic that all members of the group supposedly have:  This stereotyped label is associated with a fixed image which is usually negative.  Stereotyping and labelling can promote prejudice (a judgment based on insufficient, inappropriate and/or false information) and discrimination (the activation of prejudice)  Racism – the expression of a negative prejudice towards a specific group.  Promotes hatred towards the targeted group.  Someone who already dislikes a certain group has those feelings strengthened. and Someone who has no knowledge of the group may accept this version and develop a negative feeling towards them without any direct experience. G. Guttentag Race Relations Directorate Ministry of Citizenship

39 ASK YOURSELF  WOULD YOU SAY IT IN FRONT OF YOUR MATE, SON OR DAUGHTER?  WOULD YOU SAY IT IF THE QUOTE WAS GOING TO APPEAR ON THE FRONT PAGE OF THE NEWSPAPER?  WOULD YOU SAY IT TO A MEMBER OF THE SAME SEX IN EXACTLY THE SAME WAY?  WHY DOES IT NEED TO BE SAID? WHAT BUSINESS OF THE PROFESSION IS FURTHERED?

40 SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION IS: USUALLY UNINTENTIONAL USUALLY UNINTENTIONAL UNIVERSALLY APPLIED UNIVERSALLY APPLIED ENTRENCHED IN ORGANIZATION’S POLICIES AND PRACTICES ENTRENCHED IN ORGANIZATION’S POLICIES AND PRACTICES SCREENS OUT ENTIRE GROUPS OF PEOPLE FOR NON JOB-RELATED REASONS SCREENS OUT ENTIRE GROUPS OF PEOPLE FOR NON JOB-RELATED REASONS MAY RESULT IN INAPPROPRIATE PROGRAMS AND INSENSITIVE SERVICE DELIVERY MAY RESULT IN INAPPROPRIATE PROGRAMS AND INSENSITIVE SERVICE DELIVERY CONTRARY TO HUMAN RIGHTS LEGISLATION

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42 EXAMPLES OF SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND/OR SERVICE DELIVERY CREDENTIALISM CREDENTIALISM NON-VALID TESTS NON-VALID TESTS LENGTHY EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS LENGTHY EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS NON-JOB-RELATED QUALIFICATIONS NON-JOB-RELATED QUALIFICATIONS UNNECESSARY PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS UNNECESSARY PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS LACK OF ACCESS LACK OF ACCESS LANGUAGE BARRIERS LANGUAGE BARRIERS INADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF TRADITIONS AND VALUES INADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF TRADITIONS AND VALUES

43 Where are We Now? Post 9/11 climate (2001 ff) Rights, Freedoms and Responsibilities Hate Crime Community Working Group Diversity Initiatives in Public Service Backlash Assault on Human Rights Provisions Lack of Accountability Erosion of “Canadian” identity and achievements in social justice

44 WHERE ARE WE GOING? WHERE ARE WE GOING? Multiculturalism in Action! Diversity and Social Justice! Anti-discriminationAnti-oppression Policy into Practice!

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46 Chinese Proverb Those who say it cannot be done Those who say it cannot be done Should not interrupt the people doing it! Should not interrupt the people doing it! African Proverb If you want to go fast, go alone If you want to go fast, go alone If you want to go far, go together If you want to go far, go together

47 What is an Ally? An ally is a member of the agent social group who takes a stand against social injustice directed at target groups ( Whites who speak out against racism, men who are anti- sexist). An ally is a member of the agent social group who takes a stand against social injustice directed at target groups ( Whites who speak out against racism, men who are anti- sexist). An ally works to be an agent of social change rather than an agent of oppression. An ally works to be an agent of social change rather than an agent of oppression. When a form of oppression has multiple target groups, as do racism, ableism, heterosexism and faithism, target group members can be allies to other targeted social groups they are not part of (e.g. lesbians can be allies to bisexual people, African Canadians can be allies to Aboriginal Peoples, Jewish people can be allies to Muslims). When a form of oppression has multiple target groups, as do racism, ableism, heterosexism and faithism, target group members can be allies to other targeted social groups they are not part of (e.g. lesbians can be allies to bisexual people, African Canadians can be allies to Aboriginal Peoples, Jewish people can be allies to Muslims).

48 Characteristics of an Ally Characteristics of an Ally Feels good about own social group membership; is comfortable and proud of own identity Feels good about own social group membership; is comfortable and proud of own identity Takes responsibility for learning about own and target group heritage, culture and experience, and how oppression works in everyday life. Takes responsibility for learning about own and target group heritage, culture and experience, and how oppression works in everyday life. Listens to and respects the perspectives and experience of target group members Listens to and respects the perspectives and experience of target group members Recognizes that unlearning oppressive beliefs and actions is a lifelong process, not a single event, and welcomes each learning opportunity Recognizes that unlearning oppressive beliefs and actions is a lifelong process, not a single event, and welcomes each learning opportunity Is willing to take risks, try new behaviours, act in spite of own fear and resistance from other agents Is willing to take risks, try new behaviours, act in spite of own fear and resistance from other agents

49 Characteristics of an Ally Characteristics of an Ally Takes care of self to avoid burnout Takes care of self to avoid burnout Acts against social injustice out of a belief that it is in her/his own self-interest to do so Acts against social injustice out of a belief that it is in her/his own self-interest to do so Is willing to make mistakes, learn from them, and try again Is willing to make mistakes, learn from them, and try again Is willing to be confronted about own behaviour and attitudes and consider change Is willing to be confronted about own behaviour and attitudes and consider change Is committed to taking action against social injustice in own sphere of influence Is committed to taking action against social injustice in own sphere of influence Understands own group and response patterns and when she/he is on a learning edge Understands own group and response patterns and when she/he is on a learning edge Understands the connections among all forms of social injustice Understands the connections among all forms of social injustice

50 Characteristics of an Ally Characteristics of an Ally Believes she/he can make a difference by acting and speaking out against social injustice Believes she/he can make a difference by acting and speaking out against social injustice Knows how to cultivate support from other allies Knows how to cultivate support from other allies Excerpt from Adams,M., Bell,L. and Griffin, P. (1997) Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice

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53 “ Knowing too much about other people puts you in their power, they have a claim on you, you are forced to understand their reasons for doing things, and then you are weakened.” Margaret Atwood Cat’s Eye

54 Together we’re stronger! Together we’re stronger! Together we’re better! Together we’re better! Together we’ll achieve equity! Together we’ll achieve equity! And practice what we preach as Liberals! And practice what we preach as Liberals!


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