Presentation on theme: "HUM105/Intercultural Communication Race and Ethnicity."— Presentation transcript:
HUM105/Intercultural Communication Race and Ethnicity
Intersectionality & Spheres of Influence Social Structural Realm RepresentationalRealm Realm of Social Realm of SocialInteraction
Intersections of Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality Representational Realm The representational realm includes the symbols, language, and images that convey “meanings” in a sociocultural system. Social Interactional Realm Social interaction refers to the norms and behaviors observable in human relations in a sociocultural system. Social Structural Realm The social structural realm involves the institutional sites where power and resources are controlled and distributed in a sociocultural system.
Conceptualizing… Essentialism: A perspective that argues that members of a segment of a population share essential biological and psychological characteristics. These characteristics are argued to be uniform and unalterable. Constructionism: A perspective that argues that differences and similarities among and between members of segments of a population are created through socio-econo-political processes of socialization (enculturation).
Conceptualizing… The Matrix of Domination: To borrow Marilyn Frye’s (1983) words, the Matrix of Domination refers to “a network of forces and barriers which are systematically related and which conspire to the immobilization, reduction, and molding of ”the oppressed.” In other words, in the U.S.A. stratified society Race, Gender, Sexuality, Worldview, and Class constitute the multifaceted, intertwined, and fluid system of oppression and domination. While some dimensions are more forceful than others, good analysis cannot be done with isolating and compartmentalizing these dimensions.
Conceptualizing… The Categorization Process (The Creation of the Other) 1) Naming (Defining) -Imposing -Asserting -Reclaiming 2) Aggregating/Disaggregating -Lumping and dissecting 3) Dichotomizing (polarizing) -Creating master and subordinate categories in the form of _________:None-______ 4) Stigmatizing (dehumanizing, objectifying) -Through the use of stereotypes in different venues
Conceptualizing… The Matrix of Domination: -Racism -Sexism - Cissexism -Hetrosexism -Ageism -Classism -Other isms? o
Conceptualizing Race … Biological Race: A product of the Speciation process where members of a segment of a population no longer interbreeds with members of the other segment of the population (no gene flow) for a long period of time. The result would be biological races (species, subspecies) that are characterized by distinctive gene frequencies and can no longer interbreed. Contemporary humans are members of one species: homo sapiens sapiens.
Conceptualizing Race … Social Race: A product of the Categorization process (The Creation of the Other) where members of a segment of the population are perceived, or claim, to share essential biological and psychological characteristics that are distinct from members of other segments of the population, hence labeled accordingly. Social Race is a constructed socio-econo-political system.
Conceptualizing Ethnicity … Ethnicity: A product of the Categorization process (The Creation of the Other) where members of a segment of the population are perceived, or claim, to share common ancestry, distinctive linguistic, religious, and/or other cultural practices that are distinct from members of other segments of the population, hence labeled accordingly. Ethnicity is a constructed socio-econo-political system.
Conceptualizing Whiteness… Whiteness : In the context of the social construction of Race, Whiteness refers to the unearned, yet enjoyed, accumulated differential advantages at someone else ’ s expense. When confronted, one may take responsibility, or one may invoke guilt, shame, fear, helplessness, denial, ….
Ethnocentrism Prejudice Discrimination Genocide/Culturecide Ethnocentrism (Mental) The naturalness of one ’ s own group in terms of values, beliefs, and behavior vis- à -vis other groups Prejudice (Expressive) The use of verbal/written stereotypes in articulating ethnocentrism Discrimination (Behavioral) The implementation of Prejudice in terms of accumulated advantages and disadvantages. This is done at both the individual and institutional levels. It is also done overtly and covertly. Racism, Sexism, Classism, Heterosexism, Ageism At the individual level, anyone, regardless of the group, can discriminate (i.e be a racist, sexist, etc ….). At the institutional level, however, the dominant group, regardless of individuals ’ intentions, is the only one that is capable of racism, sexism, etc …. Genocide/Culturecide (Behavioral) The physical/cultural elimination of a group of people.
Racism… Discrimination against individuals and/or groups based on the socially constructed category of Race.This is done at both the individual and institutional levels. It is also done overtly and covertly. At the individual level, anyone, regardless of the group, can discriminate (i.e. be a racist). At the institutional level, however, the dominant group, regardless of individuals’ intentions, is the only one that is capable of racism.