Presentation on theme: "The Self-fulfilling Prophecy as a Three-Step Process"— Presentation transcript:
1PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination: Intergroup Bias
2The Self-fulfilling Prophecy as a Three-Step Process
3Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968) Teachers were told that, on the basis of an IQ test, a certain group of students was on the verge of an intellectual spurtThis group of students was randomly chosenTest was bogus8 months later, this group ofStudents actually outperformedothers on an IQ test
5What is the state of intergroup bias in the U.S.? “Not everybody’s life is what they make it. Some people’s life is what other people make it.”- Alice Walker
6Racism: HealthcareBlack and Latino cardiac patients less likely to receive appropriate heart medicineLess likely to undergo coronary bypass surgeryLess likely to receive dialysis or kidney transplantReceive lower quality basic clinical services
7Racism: Hiring (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2003) Sent 5000 phantom applications to job ads in Boston & ChicagoResumes were identical, EXCEPT:RACE WAS VARIED by use of NAMES (Tamika vs Kristin; Tyrone vs Brad)Results?
8Racism: Mortgage Discrimination White people are far more likely than Black people to be granted mortgage loansThis effect cannot be “explained away” statistically by differences
9Sexism: Pay InequityIn 2003, women who worked full-time made __ cents for every dollar a man made.Asian women: 75 centsWhite women: 70 centsBlack women: 63 centsNative women: 57 centsLatina women: 52 centsThese differences cannot be explained away….
10What Is a Social Group?Two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics:Direct interactions with each other over a period of time.Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes.A shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals.
11Defining Important Terms Stereotypes: COGNITIONS/BELIEFSPrejudice: AFFECT/EMOTIONSDiscrimination: BEHAVIORS
16Social Categorization Tajfel’s Minimal Group Paradigm Minimal Groups = categorizing persons on the basis of trivial infoPs watch a coin toss that randomly assigned them to X or W“Overestimators” vs. “Underestimators”
17Social Categorization Tajfel’s Minimal Group Paradigm General Findings
21absent-minded reads books drinks coffee wears glasses DefinitionsWhat is a stereotype?beliefs about characteristics of group memberse.g., professorabsent-minded reads booksdrinks coffee wears glasses
22Stereotype Content Warm-Competence Women Homeless People Rich The Elderly
23The Stereotype Content Model (Fiske et al., 2002) Two fundamental dimensions: warmth & competencePositive StereotypesNegative StereotypesMIXED:Paternalistic stereotypes (high warmth/low competence)e.g., elderly, disabled people, some gender stereotypesEnvious stereotypes (low warmth/high competence)Asians, JewsThe 4 different combinations of warmth and competence are associated with different intergroup emotions
24Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 1999; 2002) Low competence, Low warmth -> ContemptLow competence, High warmth -> PityHigh competence, Low warmth -> EnvyHigh competence, High warmth -> Pride
25How Stereotypes Survive: Illusory Correlationsan overestimation of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlatedConfirmation BiasesSelf-Fulfilling PropheciesAttribution & Subtyping
26Stereotype: Black men are dangerous Is it a weapon (Correll et al., 2002)?Subjects played video game (see p. 149 of text for picture)IVs:Race of targetTarget is holding weapon or harmless objectDVs: Pushed “shoot” or “don’t shoot” button
27Stereotype: Black men are dangerous Results:Subjects mistook harmless objects for guns when held by black targetsIn other words, subjects biases caused them to “confirm” their expectations
28“White men can’t jump” Stone et al., 1997 Subjects listened to same basketball gameIV: Subjects were led to believe player was black or whiteDV: How athletic was the player? How “court smart” was the player?
30Stereotypes as (Sometimes) Automatic Devine (1989): We become highly aware of the contents of many stereotypes through sociocultural mechanisms.AutomaticCan influence behavior even when do not consciously endorse the stereotype.
31What Factors Can Influence Stereotype Activation? Cognitive FactorsCultural Factors (e.g., media and norms)Motivation (e.g., be egalitarian, restore SE)Personal Factors (High in Prejudice)
32Overcoming Stereotypes Motivation to Control Prejudice for Internal ReasonsCognitive Resources (Energy & Control)
33Prejudice: The emotional component Competition-based prejudiceExplicit vs. Implicit prejudice
34Realistic Conflict Theory The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources.
35Competition for Limited Resources Realistic Conflict Theoryscarce resourcesPeople feel a sense of---feeling threatened > prejudice and discrimination
36Realistic Conflict Theory Example 1 (Hovland & Sears)cotton & lynchings in South ( )as cotton prices went down (i.e., scarce resources), number of lynchings of Black people increasedExample 2Jewish HolocaustAs German economy worsened, Jewish people were scapegoated, resented, killed.
37Realistic Conflict Theory Example 2 (Sherif & Colleagues)
38Realistic Conflict Theory Example 2 (Sherif & Colleagues)Boy Scout Camp (Eagles vs Rattlers)Strengthened cohesiveness w/in group in first weekEnhanced competition btw groups in second weekResources were source of conflictHow was conflict restored????
39Types of RacismModern Racism: A form of racism that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalizeCalling strikes by umpiresEstablish “moral credentials”Implicit Racism: Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally
40Implicit Attitudes Explicit Attitudes Operate at conscious level Function in an unconscious & unintentional mannerHow do we measure??Explicit AttitudesOperate at conscious levelBest measured by traditional, self-report measures
41How Can Implicit Racism Be Detected and Measured? Use reaction times to measure associations between race and positive/negative wordsFazio et al.’s (1995) bona fide pipeline measure.see face, then respond to good/bad wordsGreenwald et al.’s (1998) Implicit Association Test (IAT)Pair faces with good/bad words
43Development of Explicit vs. Implicit Racial Preferences
44Sexism: Ambivalence and Double Standards in Section Two
45Beyond Racism: Age, Weight, Sexuality, and Other Targets Other types of discrimination
46Being StigmatizedBeing persistently stereotyped, perceived as deviant, and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic.
47Gay Pride and Spare Change Individuals in a parking lot near a shopping center in southern England were approached by someone who politely asked, “Excuse me, canyou help me please, I am short of change and need 10 pence to pay my parking fee, could you check to see if you have a 10-pence pieceI could have?” Requestors wearing a T-shirt with the words “Gay Pride” on the front were significantly less likely to be offered the changethan requestors wearing a blank T-shirt. Based on Hendren & Blank, c Cengage Learning
48Stereotype ThreatStereotype threat is the fear that one will be reduced to a stereotype in the eyes of others.How can stereotype threat hamper academic achievement?
50Stereotype Threat General Features Threat is situational Domain connectedStrength varies with…About social identity applies to many groups
51Not Good at Math Good at Math Stereotypes and Multiple IdentitiesNot Good at MathGood at Math
52Remind Asian-American women of their Multiple Identities (Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady,1999)Remind Asian-American women of theirAsian identity (questions about languages spoken, race, etc.)Female identity (questions about co-ed housing)Neither identity (questions about telephone service)Take a math test
54Preventing Stereotype Threat (Table 5.6) Test as NondiagnosticInforming that Group does not perform worseThink of intelligence as malleable v. fixed
55Interracial Interactions- Why do all the White and Black kids sit together?* WhitesConcern with being perceived as prejudicedWhite Ps high in implicit racism tend to experience cognitive depletion in interracial interactionsConcerns and tensions influence interracial interactions and interestBlacksConcern with being treated negatively because of prejudice and being perceived stereotypically (Mendoza-Denton et al., 2002; Shelton, 2003)Concerns influence social judgments about and during interracial contact12:40pm yes or after, no!Or we have 15 min left (Need 35 min left- 12:45pm
56Interpersonal Concerns with Prejudice Whites and BlacksHarbor fear of rejection because of their group membershipsFear that out-group members will perceive them in a way that threatens their identity (Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2003)
57Pluralistic Ignorance People observe others behaving similarly to themselves but believe that the same behaviors reflect different feelings and beliefs (Miller & McFarland, 1987, 1991)
58Other person’s behavior Pluralistic IgnoranceOwn behaviorReflect fears of social exclusionOther person’s behaviorTaken at face valueReflects the person’s true feelings
59Divergent Attributions You enter the dining hall for dinner. You are alone because your close friends are in a review session. As you look around the dining hall for a place to sit, you notice several White (Black) students who live near you sitting together. These students also notice you. However, neither of you explicitly makes a move to sit together.
60Fear of Rejection Divergent Attributions Lack of Interest How likely is that fear of being rejected because of your race would inhibit you from sitting with these students?Lack of InterestHow likely is that your lack of interest in getting to know these students would inhibit you from sitting with them?Answered for self and other (counterbalanced)7-point scale where 1 = not at all and 7 = very much
61Black Participants Responses for Self and Other in Interracial Contact Black participants with a White partner – so the interracial interactionsBlacks indicate that Fear of rejection is a better explanation for their inaction compared to the out-group.But lack of interest is a better explanation for the out-group’s inaction compared to my inaction.In addition, fear of rejection is a better explanation than lack of interest for the self.However, lack of interest is a better explanation than fear of rejection for the other person.
62Same for White Participants Judgments If you look at Whites, you see a very similar pattern.In the interracial interaction….Fear of rejection is a better explanation for my inaction compared to the out-group.But lack of interest is a better explanation for the out-group’s inaction compared to my inaction.
63Black Participants with Black Partner But if you look at the intraracial interaction for blacks you see that the pattern doesn’t exist.Here you simply see a main effect for type of attribution.
64White Participants with White Partner For the intraracial interactions for Whites, you see the main effect for type of attribution again.Whites are more likely to indicate that lack of interest explains their own and their White partner’s inaction.
65Blacks and Whites Divergent Attributions Make divergent attributions for own and out-group members’ avoidance of interracial contactInterpersonal Concerns with PrejudiceI’m afraid of being rejected!They lack interest in interacting!Misunderstanding occurs even before the interaction
66Repeated Intergroup Contact that involves What Can We Do?Repeated Intergroup Contact that involvesIndividuationCommon In-Group Identity (reduce us v. them)
67Self-Esteem in U.S. Minority Groups From J. M. Twenge and J. Crocker, “Race and Self-Esteem: Meta-Analysis Comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 128, 2002, pp
68Coping with StigmaStigma = having an attribute that is viewed as inferior, deficient, etc.1) attributing negative feedback to prejudice(2) comparing outcomes with those of their ingroup(3)