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1 PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination: Intergroup Bias.

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Presentation on theme: "1 PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination: Intergroup Bias."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 PSY 321 Dr. Sanchez Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination: Intergroup Bias

2 2 The Self-fulfilling Prophecy as a Three-Step Process

3 3 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968) Teachers were told that, on the basis of an IQ test, a certain group of students was on the verge of an intellectual spurt This group of students was randomly chosen Test was bogus 8 months later, this group of 8 months later, this group of Students actually outperformed Students actually outperformed others on an IQ test others on an IQ test

4 4 Racial Profiling as a Self-fulfilling Prophecy

5 5 What is the state of intergroup bias in the U.S.? “Not everybody’s life is what they make it. Some people’s life is what other people make it.” - Alice Walker

6 6 Racism: Healthcare Black and Latino cardiac patients less likely to receive appropriate heart medicineBlack and Latino cardiac patients less likely to receive appropriate heart medicine Less likely to undergo coronary bypass surgeryLess likely to undergo coronary bypass surgery Less likely to receive dialysis or kidney transplantLess likely to receive dialysis or kidney transplant Receive lower quality basic clinical servicesReceive lower quality basic clinical services

7 7 Racism: Hiring (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2003) –Sent 5000 phantom applications to job ads in Boston & Chicago –Resumes were identical, EXCEPT:  RACE WAS VARIED by use of NAMES (Tamika vs Kristin; Tyrone vs Brad) –Results?

8 8 Racism: Mortgage Discrimination White people are far more likely than Black people to be granted mortgage loans White people are far more likely than Black people to be granted mortgage loans This effect cannot be “explained away” statistically by differences This effect cannot be “explained away” statistically by differences

9 9 Sexism: Pay Inequity In 2003, women who worked full-time made __ cents for every dollar a man made. In 2003, women who worked full-time made __ cents for every dollar a man made. –Asian women: 75 cents –White women: 70 cents –Black women: 63 cents –Native women: 57 cents –Latina women: 52 cents These differences cannot be explained away…. These differences cannot be explained away….

10 10 What Is a Social Group? Two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics: Two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics: –Direct interactions with each other over a period of time. –Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes. –A shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals.

11 11 Defining Important Terms Stereotypes: COGNITIONS/BELIEFS Stereotypes: COGNITIONS/BELIEFS Prejudice: AFFECT/EMOTIONS Prejudice: AFFECT/EMOTIONS Discrimination: BEHAVIORS Discrimination: BEHAVIORS

12 12 Perceiving Groups: Three Reactions

13 13 A CLASS DIVIDED Social Categorization: Jane Elliot’s Class Exercise Blue Eyes vs. Brown Eyes

14 14 How Stereotypes Form: In-groups vs. Out-groups We have a strong tendency to divide people into ingroups and outgroups. We have a strong tendency to divide people into ingroups and outgroups. Benefits Benefits Consequences Consequences – outgroup homogeneity effect

15 15 Why Are Out-groups Seen As Homogeneous?

16 16 Social Categorization Tajfel’s Minimal Group Paradigm Minimal Groups = categorizing persons on the basis of trivial info – –Ps watch a coin toss that randomly assigned them to X or W – –“Overestimators” vs. “Underestimators”

17 17 Social Categorization Tajfel’s Minimal Group Paradigm General Findings

18 18 Social Identity Theory

19 19 Social Identity Theory Basic Predictions: Basic Predictions: 1) Threats to SE = need for ingroup favoritism 1) Threats to SE = need for ingroup favoritism 2) Ingroup favoritism = repairs SE 2) Ingroup favoritism = repairs SE

20 20 Stereotypes

21 21 Definitions What is a stereotype? What is a stereotype? –beliefs about characteristics of group members e.g., professor absent-minded reads books drinks coffee wears glasses

22 22 Stereotype Content Warm-Competence Warm-Competence HomelessPeople Women The Elderly Rich

23 23 The Stereotype Content Model (Fiske et al., 2002) Two fundamental dimensions: warmth & competence Two fundamental dimensions: warmth & competence Positive Stereotypes Positive Stereotypes Negative Stereotypes Negative Stereotypes MIXED: MIXED: –Paternalistic stereotypes (high warmth/low competence)  e.g., elderly, disabled people, some gender stereotypes –Envious stereotypes (low warmth/high competence)  Asians, Jews The 4 different combinations of warmth and competence are associated with different intergroup emotions The 4 different combinations of warmth and competence are associated with different intergroup emotions

24 24 Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 1999; 2002) Low competence, Low warmth -> Contempt Low competence, Low warmth -> Contempt Low competence, High warmth -> Pity Low competence, High warmth -> Pity High competence, Low warmth -> Envy High competence, Low warmth -> Envy High competence, High warmth -> Pride High competence, High warmth -> Pride

25 25 How Stereotypes Survive: Illusory Correlations Illusory Correlations –an overestimation of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated Confirmation Biases Confirmation Biases Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Attribution & Subtyping Attribution & Subtyping

26 26 Stereotype: Black men are dangerous Is it a weapon (Correll et al., 2002)? Is it a weapon (Correll et al., 2002)? Subjects played video game (see p. 149 of text for picture) Subjects played video game (see p. 149 of text for picture) IVs: IVs: –Race of target –Target is holding weapon or harmless object DVs: Pushed “shoot” or “don’t shoot” button DVs: Pushed “shoot” or “don’t shoot” button

27 27 Stereotype: Black men are dangerous Results: Results: Subjects mistook harmless objects for guns when held by black targets Subjects mistook harmless objects for guns when held by black targets In other words, subjects biases caused them to “confirm” their expectations In other words, subjects biases caused them to “confirm” their expectations

28 28 “White men can’t jump” Stone et al., 1997 Subjects listened to same basketball game Subjects listened to same basketball game IV: Subjects were led to believe player was black or white IV: Subjects were led to believe player was black or white DV: How athletic was the player? How “court smart” was the player? DV: How athletic was the player? How “court smart” was the player?

29 29 “White Men Can’t Jump”?

30 30 Stereotypes as (Sometimes) Automatic Devine (1989): We become highly aware of the contents of many stereotypes through sociocultural mechanisms. Devine (1989): We become highly aware of the contents of many stereotypes through sociocultural mechanisms. –Automatic Can influence behavior even when do not consciously endorse the stereotype. Can influence behavior even when do not consciously endorse the stereotype.

31 31 What Factors Can Influence Stereotype Activation? Cognitive Factors Cognitive Factors Cultural Factors (e.g., media and norms) Cultural Factors (e.g., media and norms) Motivation (e.g., be egalitarian, restore SE) Motivation (e.g., be egalitarian, restore SE) Personal Factors (High in Prejudice) Personal Factors (High in Prejudice)

32 32 Overcoming Stereotypes Motivation to Control Prejudice for Internal Reasons Motivation to Control Prejudice for Internal Reasons Cognitive Resources (Energy & Control) Cognitive Resources (Energy & Control)

33 33 Prejudice: The emotional component Competition-based prejudice Competition-based prejudice Explicit vs. Implicit prejudice Explicit vs. Implicit prejudice

34 34 Realistic Conflict Theory The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources. The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources.

35 35 Competition for Limited Resources Realistic Conflict Theory Realistic Conflict Theory –scarce resources –People feel a sense of--- –feeling threatened > prejudice and discrimination

36 36 Realistic Conflict Theory Example 1 (Hovland & Sears) – –cotton & lynchings in South ( ) – –as cotton prices went down (i.e., scarce resources), number of lynchings of Black people increased Example 2 – –Jewish Holocaust – –As German economy worsened, Jewish people were scapegoated, resented, killed.

37 37 Realistic Conflict Theory Example 2 (Sherif & Colleagues) Example 2 (Sherif & Colleagues)

38 38 Realistic Conflict Theory Example 2 (Sherif & Colleagues) Example 2 (Sherif & Colleagues) –Boy Scout Camp (Eagles vs Rattlers) –Strengthened cohesiveness w/in group in first week –Enhanced competition btw groups in second week –Resources were source of conflict –How was conflict restored????

39 Types of Racism Modern Racism: A form of racism that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize Modern Racism: A form of racism that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize –Calling strikes by umpires –Establish “moral credentials” Implicit Racism: Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally Implicit Racism: Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally

40 40 Explicit Attitudes Explicit Attitudes –Operate at conscious level –Best measured by traditional, self- report measures Implicit Attitudes Implicit Attitudes –Function in an unconscious & unintentional manner –How do we measure??

41 41 How Can Implicit Racism Be Detected and Measured? Use reaction times to measure associations between race and positive/negative words Use reaction times to measure associations between race and positive/negative words –Fazio et al.’s (1995) bona fide pipeline measure.  see face, then respond to good/bad words –Greenwald et al.’s (1998) Implicit Association Test (IAT)  Pair faces with good/bad words

42 Facial Features and Prison Sentences

43 Development of Explicit vs. Implicit Racial Preferences

44 Sexism: Ambivalence and Double Standards in Section Two

45 Beyond Racism: Age, Weight, Sexuality, and Other Targets Other types of discrimination

46 Being Stigmatized Being persistently stereotyped, perceived as deviant, and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic. Being persistently stereotyped, perceived as deviant, and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic.

47 Gay Pride and Spare Change

48 Stereotype Threat Stereotype threat is the fear that one will be reduced to a stereotype in the eyes of others. Stereotype threat is the fear that one will be reduced to a stereotype in the eyes of others. How can stereotype threat hamper academic achievement? How can stereotype threat hamper academic achievement?

49 Stereotype Threat and Academic Performance

50 General Features General Features –Threat is situational –Domain connected  Strength varies with… –About social identity  applies to many groups Stereotype Threat

51 Stereotypes and Multiple Identities Good at Math Not Good at Math

52 Multiple Identities (Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady,1999) Remind Asian-American women of their – Asian identity (questions about languages spoken, race, etc.) –Female identity (questions about co- ed housing) –Neither identity (questions about telephone service) Take a math test

53 Multiple Identities (Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady,1999)

54 Preventing Stereotype Threat (Table 5.6) Test as Nondiagnostic Test as Nondiagnostic Informing that Group does not perform worse Informing that Group does not perform worse Think of intelligence as malleable v. fixed Think of intelligence as malleable v. fixed 54

55 Interracial Interactions- Why do all the White and Black kids sit together?* Whites Whites –Concern with being perceived as prejudiced –White Ps high in implicit racism tend to experience cognitive depletion in interracial interactions –Concerns and tensions influence interracial interactions and interest Blacks Blacks –Concern with being treated negatively because of prejudice and being perceived stereotypically (Mendoza- Denton et al., 2002; Shelton, 2003) –Concerns influence social judgments about and during interracial contact

56 Interpersonal Concerns with Prejudice Whites and Blacks –Harbor fear of rejection because of their group memberships –Fear that out-group members will perceive them in a way that threatens their identity (Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2003)

57 Pluralistic Ignorance People observe others behaving similarly to themselves but believe that the same behaviors reflect different feelings and beliefs (Miller & McFarland, 1987, 1991)

58 Pluralistic Ignorance Own behavior –Reflect fears of social exclusion Other person’s behavior –Taken at face value –Reflects the person’s true feelings

59 Divergent Attributions You enter the dining hall for dinner. You are alone because your close friends are in a review session. As you look around the dining hall for a place to sit, you notice several White (Black) students who live near you sitting together. These students also notice you. However, neither of you explicitly makes a move to sit together.

60 Divergent Attributions Fear of Rejection –How likely is that fear of being rejected because of your race would inhibit you from sitting with these students? Lack of Interest –How likely is that your lack of interest in getting to know these students would inhibit you from sitting with them? Answered for self and other (counterbalanced) 7-point scale where 1 = not at all and 7 = very much

61 Black Participants Responses for Self and Other in Interracial Contact

62 Same for White Participants Judgments

63 Black Participants with Black Partner

64 White Participants with White Partner

65 Divergent Attributions Blacks and Whites –Make divergent attributions for own and out-group members’ avoidance of interracial contact –Interpersonal Concerns with Prejudice I’m afraid of being rejected! They lack interest in interacting! –Misunderstanding occurs even before the interaction

66 What Can We Do? Repeated Intergroup Contact that involves Repeated Intergroup Contact that involves Individuation Individuation Common In-Group Identity (reduce us v. them) Common In-Group Identity (reduce us v. them)

67 Self-Esteem in U.S. Minority Groups From J. M. Twenge and J. Crocker, “Race and Self-Esteem: Meta-Analysis Comparing Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 128, 2002, pp

68 Coping with Stigma Stigma = having an attribute that is viewed as inferior, deficient, etc. Stigma = having an attribute that is viewed as inferior, deficient, etc. 1) attributing negative feedback to prejudice 1) attributing negative feedback to prejudice (2) comparing outcomes with those of their ingroup (2) comparing outcomes with those of their ingroup (3) (3)


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