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Race and Ethnic Inequality

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2 Race and Ethnic Inequality
11 Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups Prejudice and Discrimination Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Spectrum of Intergroup Relations Race and Ethnicity in the United States Social Policy and Racial and Ethnic Inequality: Global Immigration

3 A Look Ahead What is prejudice?
How is it institutionalized in the form of discrimination? In what ways have race and ethnicity affected the experience of immigrants? What are the fastest-growing minority groups in the United States today? 3

4 Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups
Racial group: Group set apart because of obvious physical differences Ethnic group: Group set apart primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns 4

5 Minority Groups Minority group: Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives Properties of minority groups include: Unequal treatment Physical or cultural traits Ascribed status Solidarity In-group marriage 5

6 Race Social construction of race
Society socially constructs which racial differences are important 6

7 Race Racial formation: Sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed Native Americans “One-drop rule” 7

8 Race Recognition of Multiple Identities
In 1990, Du Bois predicted “the color line” foremost problem of 20th century Immigration from Latin America shows fluid nature of race formation Biracial society being replaced by triracial Stereotypes: Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences with the group 8

9 Table 11-1: Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States
Note: Percentages do not total 100 and subtotals do not add up to totals in major categories because of overlap between groups (e.g., Polish American Jews or people of mixed ancestry, such as Irish and Italian). All data for 2009 except three racial groups listed at top and total population figure, which are for 2010. Source: 2009 data from American Community Survey 2010:Tables B02006, B03001, C04006; Davidson and Pyle 2011:117; Hunes et al 9

10 Figure 11-1: Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States, 1500-2100 (Projected)
Sources: Author’s estimate; Bureau of the Census 2004a; Humes et al Data for 2010 and 2100, African American and Asian and others, are for non-Hispanics. 10

11 Ethnicity Ethnic group: Group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns Distinction between racial and ethnic minorities not always clear-cut Distinction of racial and ethnic groups socially significant 11

12 Prejudice and Discrimination
Prejudice: Negative attitude toward an entire category of people Ethnocentrism: Tendency to assume one’s culture and way of life are superior to others Racism: Belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior Hate Crimes Statistics Act 12

13 Color-Blind Racism Color-blind racism: Use of principle of race neutrality to define racially unequal status quo Idea that society should be color- blind perpetuates racial inequality Color line still in place, even if more people refuse to acknowledge its existence 13

14 Discriminatory Behavior
Discrimination: Denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias Discrimination persists even for educated and qualified minority members Glass ceiling: invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity 14

15 The Privileges of the Dominant
White privilege: rights or immunities granted to people as a benefit or favor simply because they are white Institutional discrimination: Denial of opportunities and equal rights that results from operations of a society Affirmative action: Positive efforts to recruit minority members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities 15

16 Figure 11-2: U.S. Median Income by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
Note: Data released in 2010 for income earned in Median income is from all sources and is limited to year-round, full-time workers at least 25 years old. Data for White men and women are for non-Hispanics. Sources: DeNavas-Walt et al. 2010:PINC-03; for Native Americans, author’s estimate based on American Community Survey 2010:Tables B20017C, B20017H, and B20017I. 16

17 Functionalist Perspective
Nash: 3 functions that racially prejudiced beliefs provide to the dominant group: Moral justification for maintaining unequal society Discourage subordinate groups from questioning their status Encourage support for the existing order 17

18 Functionalist Perspective
Rose: dysfunctions of racism Society that practices discrimination fails to use resources of all individuals Discrimination aggravates social problems Society must invest time and money to defend barriers to full participation Racial prejudice undercuts goodwill and diplomatic relations between nations 18

19 Conflict Perspective Exploitation Theory: Racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and supplies the dominant group with cheap labor Too limited to explain all prejudice 19

20 Labeling Perspective Racial profiling: Arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on person’s behavior Practice often based on explicit stereotypes In 2010, 53% of Americans favored “ethnic and religious profiling” of air travelers 20

21 Interactionist Perspective
Contact Hypothesis: Interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon old stereotypes 21

22 Table 11-2: Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity

23 Spectrum of Intergroup Relations
Racial and ethnic groups can relate to one another in a variety of ways, from friendships and intermarriages to hostility Genocide: Deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation Expulsion of a people is another extreme means of acting out racial or ethnic prejudice 23

24 Amalgamation Amalgamation: Happens when majority group and minority group combine to form a new group Belief in the U.S. as a “melting pot” does not adequately describe dominant-subordinate relations in the U.S. 24

25 Assimilation Assimilation: Process through which person forsakes his or her cultural tradition to become part of a different culture No guarantee of social acceptance 25

26 Segregation Segregation: Physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events Generally, dominant group imposes pattern on a minority group Apartheid: Republic of South Africa severely restricted the movement of Blacks and non-Whites 26

27 Pluralism Pluralism: Based on mutual respect among various groups in a society for one another’s cultures U.S.: pluralism more ideal than reality Switzerland exemplifies pluralistic state 27

28 Race and Ethnicity in the U.S.
African Americans One out of every four blacks is poor Contemporary institutional discrimination and individual prejudice against African Americans rooted in history of slavery Black Power: Rejected goal of assimilation into White middle-class society Blacks suffer in terms of their life chances 28

29 Figure 11-3: Spectrum of Intergroup Relations

30 Racial Groups Native Americans
2.5 million Native Americans represent array of cultures distinguishable by language, family organization, religion, and livelihood Life remains difficult for 554 tribal groups Introduction of gambling on Indian reservations transformed lives of some Native Americans 30

31 Racial Groups Asian Americans
Fastest growing segment of U.S. population Diverse group Often held up as model minority or ideal minority A minority group that succeeds economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to confrontations with the majority 31

32 Racial Groups Asian Americans Chinese Americans
Originally encouraged to immigrate to U.S. from 1850 to 1880 Excluded after 1888 Over 3 million Chinese Americans Many immigrants struggle to survive under living and working conditions that belie the model-minority stereotype 32

33 Racial Groups Asian Americans Asian Indians
Immigrants from India and their descendants, numbers over 2.6 million New immigrants try to practice their religion just as they did in India Maintaining family traditions a major challenge 33

34 Racial Groups Asian Americans Filipino Americans
Third-largest Asian American with nearly 2.5 million people Began immigrating to U.S. as American nationals Significant percentage of Filipino immigrants are well-educated professionals 34

35 Racial Groups Asian Americans Vietnamese Americans
Came to U.S. primarily during and after Vietnam War Gravitated toward larger urban areas 35

36 Racial Groups Asian Americans Korean Americans
At over 1.3 million, Korean Americans exceeds Japanese Americans Often overshadowed by other Asian groups Initial wave between 1903 and 1910 Second wave after Korean War in 1953 Third wave started with 1965 Immigration Act 36

37 In 1988, U.S. established $1.25 billion trust fund to pay reparations
Racial Groups Asian Americans Japanese Americans Approximately 100,000 Issei: First generation of Japanese immigrants In August 1943, 113,000 Japanese Americans forced into camps in response to World War II In 1988, U.S. established $1.25 billion trust fund to pay reparations 37

38 Racial Groups Arab Americans
Up to 3 million people of Arab ancestry reside in the U.S. Cannot be characterized as having specific family type, gender role, or occupational pattern Profiling of potential terrorists has put Arab and Muslim Americans under surveillance 38

39 Ethnic Groups Latinos Largest minority in the United States
More modest level of upward mobility than past generations Mexican Americans largest; Puerto Ricans second largest Immigration has intensified debates over public policy issues such as bilingualism and immigration Share heritage of Spanish language and culture 39

40 Ethnic Groups Latinos Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans
Aside from family, Roman Catholic Church most important social organization Church helps many immigrants to develop a sense of identity and assists their assimilation Puerto Ricans Hold status as American citizens Experienced serious poverty in U.S. and on island 40

41 Ethnic Groups Latinos Cuban Americans Central and South America
Immigration began in earnest following Cuban revolution in 1959 Many settle in Miami, FL Central and South America Diverse population Immigrants not prepared for stark Black–White racial divide in U.S. society 41

42 Ethnic Groups Jewish Americans Constitute about 2% of population
Anti-Semitism: Anti-Jewish prejudice Face choice of maintaining ties to their long religious and cultural heritage or becoming indistinguishable from gentiles 42

43 Ethnic Groups White Ethnics
White ethnics’ ancestors came from Europe in last 100 years Symbolic ethnicity: Emphasis on concerns such as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one’s ethnic heritage 43

44 Sociology in the Global Community
11.1: The Aboriginal People of Australia Try to think of a situation in which the government might forcibly remove a child from his or her family. What would be the repercussions? What reasoning do you think lay behind the Australian government’s forced removal of Aboriginal children from their families? 44

45 Research Today 11.2: Latinos in the Voting Booth
Do you vote in a community where polling places offer multilingual ballots? If so, do the names on the ballot mirror the community’s multiethnic background? If you were a campaign worker, how would you go about appealing to the Latino vote? 45

46 Figure 11-4: The United States: The Image of Diversity
Source: Humes 2011:21. 46

47 Figure 11-5: Asian American and Pacific Islander Population by Origin
Source: 2009 data from American Community Survey 2010: Tables B02006, B02007. 47

48 Figure 11-6: Arab American Religious Affiliations
Notes: Roman/Eastern Catholic includes Roman Catholic, Maronite, and Mel kite (Greek Catholic); Eastern Orthodox includes Antiochian, Syrian, Greek, and Coptic; Muslim includes Sunni, Shi’a, and Druze. Source: Arab American Institute 2010, based on 2002 Zogby International Survey. 48

49 Figure 11-7: Hispanic Population by Origin
Note: “Other Hispanic” includes Spanish Americans and Latinos identified as mixed ancestry as well as other Central and South Americans not otherwise indicated by specific country. Source: American Community Survey 2010:Table B03001. 49

50 Global Immigration Looking at the Issue
Worldwide, immigration at all-time high Mass migrations have tremendous social impact Major migration streams flow into North America, the Middle East, and industrial economies of western Europe and Asia 50

51 Global Immigration Looking at the Issue
Transnationals: Immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships that link their societies of origin with their society of settlement Since 1960s, U.S. encouraged immigration U.S. residents’ relatives and people with specific skills 51

52 Global Immigration Applying Sociology
Research suggests immigrants adapt well to life in the U.S. Immigration performs many valuable functions Conflict theorists: debate in economic terms Feminist perspective: role women play in global immigration 52

53 Global Immigration Initiating Policy
Long border with Mexico provides opportunity for illegal immigration into U.S. 1986 act outlawed hiring illegal aliens 2010: Arizona immigration law Intense debate over immigration reflects deep value conflicts in cultures of nations 53

54 Figure 11-8: Legal Migration to the United States, 1820-2010
Sources: Author’s estimates for the period 2000–2010; Office of Immigration Statistics 2008:8–11. 54

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