Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer

2 Slide 2 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnic Inequality Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups Prejudice and Discrimination Sociological Perspectives on Race and EthnicitySociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity Spectrum of Intergroup Relations Race and Ethnicity in the United States Social Policy and Racial and Ethnic Inequality: Global ImmigrationSocial Policy and Racial and Ethnic Inequality: Global Immigration 11

3 Slide 3 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. █ What is prejudice? A Look Ahead █ How is it institutionalized in the form of discrimination? █ In what ways have race and ethnicity affected the experience of immigrants? █ What are the fastest-growing minority groups in the United States today?

4 Slide 4 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups █ Racial group: Group set apart because of obvious physical differences █ Ethnic group: Group set apart primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns

5 Slide 5 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Minority Groups █ Minority group: Subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives –Properties of minority groups include: Unequal treatment Physical or cultural traits Ascribed status Solidarity In-group marriage

6 Slide 6 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Race █ Social construction of race –Society socially constructs which racial differences are important

7 Slide 7 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Race █ Racial formation: Sociohistorical process in which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed –Native Americans –“One-drop rule”

8 Slide 8 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Race █ Recognition of Multiple Identities –In 1990, Du Bois predicted “the color line” foremost problem of 20 th century Immigration from Latin America shows fluid nature of race formation Biracial society being replaced by triracial –Stereotypes: Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences with the group

9 Slide 9 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 11-1: Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States Note: Percentages do not total 100 and subtotals do not add up to totals in major categories because of overlap between groups (e.g., Polish American Jews or people of mixed ancestry, such as Irish and Italian). All data for 2009 except three racial groups listed at top and total population figure, which are for 2010. Source: 2009 data from American Community Survey 2010:Tables B02006, B03001, C04006; Davidson and Pyle 2011:117; Hunes et al. 2011.

10 Slide 10 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-1: Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States, 1500-2100 (Projected) Sources: Author’s estimate; Bureau of the Census 2004a; Humes et al. 2011. Data for 2010 and 2100, African American and Asian and others, are for non-Hispanics.

11 Slide 11 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity █ Ethnic group: Group set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns –Distinction between racial and ethnic minorities not always clear-cut –Distinction of racial and ethnic groups socially significant

12 Slide 12 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Prejudice and Discrimination █ Prejudice: Negative attitude toward an entire category of people –Ethnocentrism: Tendency to assume one’s culture and way of life are superior to others –Racism: Belief that one race is supreme and others are innately inferior –Hate Crimes Statistics Act

13 Slide 13 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Color-Blind Racism █ Color-blind racism: Use of principle of race neutrality to define racially unequal status quo –Idea that society should be color- blind perpetuates racial inequality –Color line still in place, even if more people refuse to acknowledge its existence

14 Slide 14 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Discriminatory Behavior █ Discrimination: Denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups based on some type of arbitrary bias –Discrimination persists even for educated and qualified minority members Glass ceiling: invisible barrier blocking promotion of qualified individuals in work environment because of gender, race, or ethnicity

15 Slide 15 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Privileges of the Dominant █ White privilege: rights or immunities granted to people as a benefit or favor simply because they are white –Institutional discrimination: Denial of opportunities and equal rights that results from operations of a society –Affirmative action: Positive efforts to recruit minority members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities

16 Slide 16 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-2: U.S. Median Income by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Note: Data released in 2010 for income earned in 2009. Median income is from all sources and is limited to year-round, full- time workers at least 25 years old. Data for White men and women are for non- Hispanics. Sources: DeNavas-Walt et al. 2010:PINC- 03; for Native Americans, author’s estimate based on American Community Survey 2010:Tables B20017C, B20017H, and B20017I.

17 Slide 17 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Functionalist Perspective █ Nash: 3 functions that racially prejudiced beliefs provide to the dominant group: –Moral justification for maintaining unequal society –Discourage subordinate groups from questioning their status –Encourage support for the existing order

18 Slide 18 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Functionalist Perspective █ Rose: dysfunctions of racism –Society that practices discrimination fails to use resources of all individuals –Discrimination aggravates social problems –Society must invest time and money to defend barriers to full participation –Racial prejudice undercuts goodwill and diplomatic relations between nations

19 Slide 19 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Conflict Perspective █ Exploitation Theory: Racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs and supplies the dominant group with cheap labor –Too limited to explain all prejudice

20 Slide 20 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. █ Racial profiling: Arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on person’s behavior Labeling Perspective –Practice often based on explicit stereotypes –In 2010, 53% of Americans favored “ethnic and religious profiling” of air travelers

21 Slide 21 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Interactionist Perspective █ Contact Hypothesis: Interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon old stereotypes

22 Slide 22 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 11-2: Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity

23 Slide 23 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Spectrum of Intergroup Relations █ Racial and ethnic groups can relate to one another in a variety of ways, from friendships and intermarriages to hostility –Genocide: Deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation Expulsion of a people is another extreme means of acting out racial or ethnic prejudice

24 Slide 24 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Amalgamation █ Amalgamation: Happens when majority group and minority group combine to form a new group –Belief in the U.S. as a “melting pot” does not adequately describe dominant-subordinate relations in the U.S.

25 Slide 25 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Assimilation █ Assimilation: Process through which person forsakes his or her cultural tradition to become part of a different culture –No guarantee of social acceptance

26 Slide 26 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Segregation █ Segregation: Physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social events –Generally, dominant group imposes pattern on a minority group Apartheid: Republic of South Africa severely restricted the movement of Blacks and non-Whites

27 Slide 27 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Pluralism █ Pluralism: Based on mutual respect among various groups in a society for one another’s cultures –U.S.: pluralism more ideal than reality –Switzerland exemplifies pluralistic state

28 Slide 28 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Ethnicity in the U.S. █ African Americans –One out of every four blacks is poor –Contemporary institutional discrimination and individual prejudice against African Americans rooted in history of slavery Black Power: Rejected goal of assimilation into White middle-class society Blacks suffer in terms of their life chances

29 Slide 29 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-3: Spectrum of Intergroup Relations

30 Slide 30 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Native Americans –2.5 million Native Americans represent array of cultures distinguishable by language, family organization, religion, and livelihood –Life remains difficult for 554 tribal groups –Introduction of gambling on Indian reservations transformed lives of some Native Americans

31 Slide 31 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Fastest growing segment of U.S. population Diverse group –Often held up as model minority or ideal minority A minority group that succeeds economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to confrontations with the majority

32 Slide 32 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Chinese Americans Originally encouraged to immigrate to U.S. from 1850 to 1880 Excluded after 1888 Over 3 million Chinese Americans Many immigrants struggle to survive under living and working conditions that belie the model-minority stereotype

33 Slide 33 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Asian Indians Immigrants from India and their descendants, numbers over 2.6 million New immigrants try to practice their religion just as they did in India Maintaining family traditions a major challenge

34 Slide 34 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Filipino Americans Third-largest Asian American with nearly 2.5 million people Began immigrating to U.S. as American nationals Significant percentage of Filipino immigrants are well-educated professionals

35 Slide 35 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Vietnamese Americans Came to U.S. primarily during and after Vietnam War Gravitated toward larger urban areas

36 Slide 36 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Korean Americans At over 1.3 million, Korean Americans exceeds Japanese Americans Often overshadowed by other Asian groups Initial wave between 1903 and 1910 Second wave after Korean War in 1953 Third wave started with 1965 Immigration Act

37 Slide 37 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Asian Americans –Japanese Americans Approximately 100,000 Issei: First generation of Japanese immigrants In August 1943, 113,000 Japanese Americans forced into camps in response to World War II In 1988, U.S. established $1.25 billion trust fund to pay reparations

38 Slide 38 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Racial Groups █ Arab Americans –Up to 3 million people of Arab ancestry reside in the U.S. –Cannot be characterized as having specific family type, gender role, or occupational pattern –Profiling of potential terrorists has put Arab and Muslim Americans under surveillance

39 Slide 39 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic Groups █ Latinos –Largest minority in the United States More modest level of upward mobility than past generations Mexican Americans largest; Puerto Ricans second largest Immigration has intensified debates over public policy issues such as bilingualism and immigration Share heritage of Spanish language and culture

40 Slide 40 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic Groups █ Latinos –Mexican Americans Aside from family, Roman Catholic Church most important social organization Church helps many immigrants to develop a sense of identity and assists their assimilation –Puerto Ricans Hold status as American citizens Experienced serious poverty in U.S. and on island

41 Slide 41 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic Groups █ Latinos –Cuban Americans Immigration began in earnest following Cuban revolution in 1959 Many settle in Miami, FL –Central and South America Diverse population Immigrants not prepared for stark Black–White racial divide in U.S. society

42 Slide 42 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic Groups █ Jewish Americans –Constitute about 2% of population –Anti-Semitism: Anti-Jewish prejudice –Face choice of maintaining ties to their long religious and cultural heritage or becoming indistinguishable from gentiles

43 Slide 43 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic Groups █ White Ethnics –White ethnics’ ancestors came from Europe in last 100 years –Symbolic ethnicity: Emphasis on concerns such as ethnic food or political issues rather than deeper ties to one’s ethnic heritage

44 Slide 44 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociology in the Global Community █ 11.1: The Aboriginal People of Australia –Try to think of a situation in which the government might forcibly remove a child from his or her family. What would be the repercussions? –What reasoning do you think lay behind the Australian government’s forced removal of Aboriginal children from their families?

45 Slide 45 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Research Today █ 11.2: Latinos in the Voting Booth –Do you vote in a community where polling places offer multilingual ballots? If so, do the names on the ballot mirror the community’s multiethnic background? –If you were a campaign worker, how would you go about appealing to the Latino vote?

46 Slide 46 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-4: The United States: The Image of Diversity Source: Humes 2011:21.

47 Slide 47 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-5: Asian American and Pacific Islander Population by Origin Source: 2009 data from American Community Survey 2010: Tables B02006, B02007.

48 Slide 48 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-6: Arab American Religious Affiliations Notes: Roman/Eastern Catholic includes Roman Catholic, Maronite, and Mel kite (Greek Catholic); Eastern Orthodox includes Antiochian, Syrian, Greek, and Coptic; Muslim includes Sunni, Shi’a, and Druze. Source: Arab American Institute 2010, based on 2002 Zogby International Survey.

49 Slide 49 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-7: Hispanic Population by Origin Note: “Other Hispanic” includes Spanish Americans and Latinos identified as mixed ancestry as well as other Central and South Americans not otherwise indicated by specific country. Source: American Community Survey 2010:Table B03001.

50 Slide 50 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Global Immigration █ Looking at the Issue –Worldwide, immigration at all-time high –Mass migrations have tremendous social impact –Major migration streams flow into North America, the Middle East, and industrial economies of western Europe and Asia

51 Slide 51 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Global Immigration █ Looking at the Issue –Transnationals: Immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships that link their societies of origin with their society of settlement –Since 1960s, U.S. encouraged immigration U.S. residents’ relatives and people with specific skills

52 Slide 52 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Global Immigration █ Applying Sociology –Research suggests immigrants adapt well to life in the U.S. –Immigration performs many valuable functions –Conflict theorists: debate in economic terms –Feminist perspective: role women play in global immigration

53 Slide 53 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Global Immigration █ Initiating Policy –Long border with Mexico provides opportunity for illegal immigration into U.S. –1986 act outlawed hiring illegal aliens –2010: Arizona immigration law –Intense debate over immigration reflects deep value conflicts in cultures of nations

54 Slide 54 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 11-8: Legal Migration to the United States, 1820-2010 Sources: Author’s estimates for the period 2000–2010; Office of Immigration Statistics 2008:8–11.


Download ppt "© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google