2Around the world the pattern of inequality and conflict based on color and culture is even more striking. Since the fall of former Soviet Union, Ukranian, Moldavians, Azerbeijanis and a host of other ethnic peoples in Eastern Europe have struggled to recover their cultural identity. In the Middle East, Arabs and Jews are trying to overcome deep-rooted tensions, as are Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland. In dozens of the world’s nations, color and culture often burn up in violent confrontation.
3Ethnicity refers to the common culture shared by a social group, such as language, religion and belief. It is an ascribed status means that it is confered at birth. Members of any ethnic group see themselves as culturally different from other groups in a society. They are accepted as different by others also. Ethnicity like race, gender, and age is not something the individual chooses. It is an enduring identity which deeply embedded within one’s personality. Ethnicity itself continues to exist from generation to generation. It is not a matter of biological inheritance, but of social definition.
4Minority Groupis a group which shares a cultural identity which is different from that of the majority population of a society. They live as a form of social organization or in network. As one element of pluralistic society, ethnic community is a product of social interaction rather than formal organizations. Ethnic minorities may have social or geographical boundries. Socially members of minority groups are disadvantaged as compared with the mojority population and have some ‘sense of group solidarity’. This indicates the importance of ethnic minorities from sociological point of view. They have distinctive identity (socially or physically) and they face subordination. They are not always minority in terms of numbers like in South African Republic.
5Ethnic and racial minorities Catholics in Northern Ireland,Igbo in Nigeria,Scots in Canada,Italians in Australia,Basques of Spain are ethnic groups. Despite there are few similarities among them. They all exist in pluralistic societies within a single social, economic and political system.
6An exampleAn Italian in Australia may remain an Italian even if he or she does not enjoy spaghetti or speak no Italian. But a Pole who speaks Italian and love spaghetti cannot be regarded as Italian.
7Features of Minorities They maintain their ethnicity through day-to-day interaction with others of the same group.Ethnic group is also a subculture.They have unique historical experience that shaping each individual world-view.Minorities face some disadvantages and poorer life chances that majority of population do not encounter.They mostly are member of working class. Therefore they face the problems encountered by all working class people, regardless of their ethnic origin.These people are less likely than majority people to get secure job.They are under represented in professional jobs and in parliament.They mostly perform manual works, work long hours. They are less likely to get employed when competing with majority of population.They earn less or at least lower than avarage.Ethnic minority working class women are the most disadvantaged social group of all. Think about migrant women in Germany.They tend to live in inferior housing, rented houses rather than their own property. They generally live in the areas poorer than and different from where mojority of people live.There are also additional racial discrimination and prejudice.Since they are socially isolated relatively, there is few intermarriages between different ethnic groups and minorities and majority of population.
8Racerefers to the divisions of humans according to physical characteristics (like skin colour, facial features and hair texture or body shape.Physical diversity appeared among human ancestors as the results of living in different regions of the world.Race has no value in explaining human culture socilogically. Because human behaviour is largely results of socialization and cannot be explained by biological characteristics.However these physical differences cause social discrimination so those physical differences are socially significant.Race is not a social group but an arbitrary social category based on physical characteristics.A population may display a number of inherited physical features that tend to be less typical of other populations, but these features are derived from a great pool of genes that is the common inheritance of all mankind.For example a Vietnamese orphan adopted in infancy by Canadian family may be wholly Canadian in respect to social relationship, but may be still identified by other as Asian.
9Racial or Ethnic Prejudice is a set of assumptions about a racial or ethnic group which people are reluctant to change even when they receive information which undermines those assumptions.It refers to opinions or attitudes of a group of people towards another.Prejudices are based on common sense rather than direct evidence.
10Racial or Ethnic Discrimination is when people’s racial prejudices cause them to act unfairly against a racial/ethnic group.For example, a racially prejudiced police officer might use his/her power to pick on black or Asian people more than white people, perhaps by stopping them on the street and asking what they are up to.Discrimination is actual behaviour (i.e. not giving a job to ethnic minority member).The connection between prejudice and discrimination is complex. A prejudiced person may not always act in a discrimiantory way, and there is little evidence that discriminatory behaviour is caused by prejudiced attitudes.
11DiscriminationDominant groups frequently control and restrict the economic, social and political participation of minorities by means of discrimination.Sometimes minorities may face expulsion, the forcible removal of an ethnic minority from its homeland.They may face systematic and institutionalized discrimination.Segragation is a form of social control whereby physical distance from groups with whom contact is not wanted (i.e. Apartheid)
13Racismis an ideology or the believing or acting as though an individual or group is superior or inferior on the ground of racial or ethnic origins.Racism suggests that groups defined as inferior have lower intelligenence and abilities.Racism involves both racial prejudice and racial discrimination, and encourages hostile feelings towards groups defined as inferior.Sometimes they are called as visible minorities. For example in Canada Africa, East Asian, Southeast Asian, West Asian and sometimes South or Central American people face discrimination because of their physical characteristics etc.“Equal but separated” is a form of racism in institutionalized way.Institutionalized racism implied by police, school.New racism: Instead of using biological differences making cultural discrimination to exclude certain groups.
14Explaining Racism and Ethnic Discrimination I. Pcyshological Interpretation:Stereotyping is generalized and simplified idea of the some social groups. Stereotyping may provide a rationalization for unequal treatment. This process is linked to the pcyshological mechanism of displacement.Displacement is a feeling of hostility or anger are directed against objects that are not the real origin of those feelings. Disadvantaged, powerless people can be easily target of hostile practices. Ethnic minorities are vulnarable sexually, economicaly and socially.Scapegoating: Scapegoats are individuals or groups blamed for something which is not their fault. In history there are some examples of it such as Jews, Catholics, Irish, Gypsies...When unemployment, poverty and crime rise it is easy to find some explanations by scapegoating.Authoritarian Personality as a concept or types of personality defined by Theodor Adorno (1950). These people, according to his study, tend to be conformist, submissive to their superior and dismissive toward inferiors. Authoritarian people are rigidly conformist they have conservative in their religious and sexual attitudes.
15Ask yourself?Are you coming from any ethnic background discriminative ethnically?Do you think your country is racist?How much prejudice we have against ethnic minorities?Do you agree or disagree with the following statements?-people should only marry within their own ethnic group/class.-people of different races should keep to themselves.-I would hapilly have people of a different race living next door to me.-Immigration has made the variety of life better in our country.-White people are more intelligent than black people.
16Explaining Racism and Ethnic Discrimination History: White European people have dominated African and Asian people for centuries as colonies. This experience encouraged the idea of white’s superiority.Cultural Differences : Cultural differences between groups in one culture such as religion, food, dress and way of life etc. There might be conflict between minority and mojority. Culturally rooted prejudices for more than 40 years creates social distance between groups.
17Sociological Interpretation: Ethnocentrism: It is a way of evaluating other people in terms of our culture. Ethnocentric world view percepts others as outsiders, aliens, barbarians or morally or intellectually inferior.Group Closure: is a kind of agreement among members of a group maintaining boundaries separating themselves from the other. China town, Italian neigbourhood.Resource allocation is instituting inequalities in the distribution of wealth and material goods. Wealth, power and social status are scarce resources. Those who have them try to keep this priviledges in their hands against those who do not.Conflict TheoryPowerful people use prejudices to justify oppressing others. Anglos look down on Latino immigrants in USA. Minorities themselves cultivate a climate of race counciousness.This theory bonds between racism and prejudice, power and inequality. Some Marxist thinkers say that racism is a product of capitalist system. Slavery, racism and colonizations are tools of dominant group to exploite other’s labour.Later neo-Marxists states that racism is not product of only economic forces but also because of historical and political influences.
18Ethnic IntegrationToday there are multiethnic countries as a result of international migration. There are three model referring to relations between minority and majority.Assimilation is the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population; in which the group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture.In this model, immigrants forget their original customs and practices among majority.Melting Pot is the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behaviour drawing on diverse cultural sources. It‘s a blended cultural form that makes a new cultural pattern.Cultural Pluralism is the co-existence of several subcultures within a given society on equal terms. In this model each minority is an equal stakeholders of society they are distinct but equal.
19Ethnic ConflictEthnic Conflict occurs because of antagonism among different ethnic or racial group in one particular society. Sometimes internal or sometimes external reasons can be influent on ethnic conflict. Ethnic conflict could turn into ethnic cleasing which aiming to create ethnically homogenous areas. This also involves Genocide systematic elimination of one ethnic group by the other. Ethnic conflicts sometimes attract international attention and intervention like what International War Crimes Tribunals did in Bosnia and Rwanda in the 1990s.