Presentation on theme: "Race, Ethnicity, and Sport"— Presentation transcript:
1Race, Ethnicity, and Sport chapter 11Race, Ethnicity, and Sport
2Chapter Outline Classifications of Race and Ethnicity Sport Participation Among Racial and Ethnic MinoritiesSport and Promoting EqualityMinorities As Sport LeadersSummary
3DefinitionsRace: Social category constructed and accepted by society to describe members with genetic similarityEthnicity: The cultural heritage of a groupRacism: A belief of superiority of one race over anotherMinority group: In the United States, all groups except Whites (since Whites constitute the majority of the population in North America)
4Population and Sport Participation of Minorities See table 11.1 on page 187 for the current breakdown of the U.S. population by racial group.Latinos will make up 50% of the U.S. population in 2050.The number of African Americans will increase by 71% by 2050.Advances against racism in American sport have been made since the 1960s civil rights movement.In 2003 to 2004 Division I college sports were 62.3% White males and 70.6% White females.
5African American Athletes The golden age of U.S. sport was the 1920s and 1930s.In 1947 Jackie Robinson broke through the color barrier and was named Rookie of the Year.By the 1950s participation percentages matched population percentages.By 2002 there was a big shift in the percentage of Black athletes.Blacks are overrepresented in basketball and football but underrepresented in the majority of sports.See table 11.2 on page 188 for the percentage of participation in collegiate sport by racial group.See table 11.3 on page 188 for the percentage of professional players by racial group.
6Race Differences in Specific Sports Biological reasonsNot supportedKenyans versus EthiopiansCultural and social reasonsGreater emphasis on different activities between culturesSport seen as means of social mobilityMany athletic role modelsOpportunity structuresFacilities and resources availableSpace, money, programs
7Racism in SportStacking: Minorities are disproportionately found in specific team positions.Whites in thinking and outcome control positionsBlacks in speed positionsHispanics and Latinos in baseballTable 11.4 on page 193 for stacking in the NFL and MLBEmployment: The proportion of minorities as college and professional coaches and administration is lower than that of the general population and vastly lower than athlete percentages.(continued)
8Racism in Sport (continued) Exploitation of minority athletes: Minority athletes are treated differently.Given special treatment in classroomPromoted through grades despite poor academic performanceNot academically ready for collegePressured into “easy” majorsLow graduation ratesAfrican American women especially exploited(continued)
9Racism in Sport (continued) Native American mascots: Team mascots are insensitive to Native Americans.In United States, 0.9% of population is Native AmericanApproximately 20 Native American professional athletes in 2005Poverty rate on reservations is 50%Images for names, mascots, and logos display stereotypical imagesDehumanizes and demeans cultureNCAA limiting use of names and images by 2008
10Sport As a Negative Force for Equality Professional sport career may be unrealistic goal in minority communityGraduation rates of Black males (42%) below those of male students (54%) and student-athletes (51%)Black women have same rates as student-athletes and better rates than non-student-athletesBlack families 8 times more likely than White families to pressure child into athleticsProfessional career resources limited, 95% of ex-NBA players need to find another job
11Sport As a Positive Force for Equality Sport success linked to self-confidenceWay out of poverty for someIntegration easier through sportsAfter-school programsSchool-based programs are freeUnique travel opportunities, increase in awarenessHealthy lifestyleRole models can be positive
12Ways to Promote Diversity in Sport Assist in collecting and reporting data.Require leaders to report racism.Major sport organizations need to plan on including minorities at all levels.Media need to recruit minority journalists.Include minorities in media publications and images.Get government support for programs.Adopt nondiscrimination policies.
13SummaryDifferences in physical prowess are likely due to reasons other than biological ones.Percentages of athletes, coaches, and administrators are misrepresented in certain sports.Racism in sport occurs through stacking, imaging, hiring practices, and exploitation.Sport can provide an avenue to promote diversity and equality.
14On Deck… Questions and comments Assignments and readings Next chapter: Women and SportTitle IXSocial issues