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Race, Ethnicity, and Sport

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1 Race, Ethnicity, and Sport
chapter 11 Race, Ethnicity, and Sport

2 Chapter Outline Classifications of Race and Ethnicity
Sport Participation Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities Sport and Promoting Equality Minorities As Sport Leaders Summary

3 Definitions Race: Social category constructed and accepted by society to describe members with genetic similarity Ethnicity: The cultural heritage of a group Racism: A belief of superiority of one race over another Minority group: In the United States, all groups except Whites (since Whites constitute the majority of the population in North America)

4 Population and Sport Participation of Minorities
See table 11.1 on page 187 for the current breakdown of the U.S. population by racial group. Latinos will make up 50% of the U.S. population in 2050. The number of African Americans will increase by 71% by 2050. Advances against racism in American sport have been made since the 1960s civil rights movement. In 2003 to 2004 Division I college sports were 62.3% White males and 70.6% White females.

5 African American Athletes
The golden age of U.S. sport was the 1920s and 1930s. In 1947 Jackie Robinson broke through the color barrier and was named Rookie of the Year. By the 1950s participation percentages matched population percentages. By 2002 there was a big shift in the percentage of Black athletes. Blacks are overrepresented in basketball and football but underrepresented in the majority of sports. See table 11.2 on page 188 for the percentage of participation in collegiate sport by racial group. See table 11.3 on page 188 for the percentage of professional players by racial group.

6 Race Differences in Specific Sports
Biological reasons Not supported Kenyans versus Ethiopians Cultural and social reasons Greater emphasis on different activities between cultures Sport seen as means of social mobility Many athletic role models Opportunity structures Facilities and resources available Space, money, programs

7 Racism in Sport Stacking: Minorities are disproportionately found in specific team positions. Whites in thinking and outcome control positions Blacks in speed positions Hispanics and Latinos in baseball Table 11.4 on page 193 for stacking in the NFL and MLB Employment: The proportion of minorities as college and professional coaches and administration is lower than that of the general population and vastly lower than athlete percentages. (continued)

8 Racism in Sport (continued)
Exploitation of minority athletes: Minority athletes are treated differently. Given special treatment in classroom Promoted through grades despite poor academic performance Not academically ready for college Pressured into “easy” majors Low graduation rates African American women especially exploited (continued)

9 Racism in Sport (continued)
Native American mascots: Team mascots are insensitive to Native Americans. In United States, 0.9% of population is Native American Approximately 20 Native American professional athletes in 2005 Poverty rate on reservations is 50% Images for names, mascots, and logos display stereotypical images Dehumanizes and demeans culture NCAA limiting use of names and images by 2008

10 Sport As a Negative Force for Equality
Professional sport career may be unrealistic goal in minority community Graduation rates of Black males (42%) below those of male students (54%) and student-athletes (51%) Black women have same rates as student-athletes and better rates than non-student-athletes Black families 8 times more likely than White families to pressure child into athletics Professional career resources limited, 95% of ex-NBA players need to find another job

11 Sport As a Positive Force for Equality
Sport success linked to self-confidence Way out of poverty for some Integration easier through sports After-school programs School-based programs are free Unique travel opportunities, increase in awareness Healthy lifestyle Role models can be positive

12 Ways to Promote Diversity in Sport
Assist in collecting and reporting data. Require leaders to report racism. Major sport organizations need to plan on including minorities at all levels. Media need to recruit minority journalists. Include minorities in media publications and images. Get government support for programs. Adopt nondiscrimination policies.

13 Summary Differences in physical prowess are likely due to reasons other than biological ones. Percentages of athletes, coaches, and administrators are misrepresented in certain sports. Racism in sport occurs through stacking, imaging, hiring practices, and exploitation. Sport can provide an avenue to promote diversity and equality.

14 On Deck… Questions and comments Assignments and readings
Next chapter: Women and Sport Title IX Social issues

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