2The Nature of SportSport: a set of competitive activities in which winners and losers are determined by physical performance within a set of established rules.Contests are not sports: doesn’t involve rules or standardized conditionsSport is an additional social institution: helps people identify with societySport plays dominant role in U.S. society because reflects culture’s importance in achievement.“Winning is not everything. It is the only thing.” –Vince Lombardi
3Men dominate the world of sports and have many more opportunities than women do, equality is a far reach.Sport Subculture: a group within the larger context of sport that has some of its own distinct roles, values, and norms.Michael Smith: Subculture of ViolenceSubcultures exist in non-team sports as well.
4Theoretical Perspectives and Sport Functionalism- Focus on the benefits of sport and think it is necessary for society to run smoothlySome drawbacks are identified: violence and cheatingConflict Theory- Sport is a social institution in which the most powerful oppress, manipulate, coerce, and exploit others
5Theoretical Perspectives and Sport Continued Symbolic Interactionism- personal meanings, social relationships, and self-identity processesGary Alan Fine studied Little League baseballValues of hard work and competition misinterpreted as toughness, and masculine values of dominanceMore aggressive player are praised more and weaker players lose respect among others and often lose self-esteem
6Sport and Social Mobility Many people use sports as a way to work their way out of povertyUpward social mobility- College athletes tend to be better educated, earn more money, and have higher occupational prestige than their fathersPeople argue that sports are a social escalator for minoritiesEx: Venus and Serena Williams6
7Sport and RacismStacking- players are assigned to less central positions on the basis of race or ethnicityAfrican Americans have lower average salaries than whites for the same level of performanceMinority former athletes profit much less than white athletes from personal appearances and commercial endorsements7
8Sexism in SportsIt all started with the ancient Greeks and the view of GoddessesFemales were told that playing sports made them unfemininePeople argued that sports harmed a woman’s health mostly her ability to have childrenWomen in professional sports get paid substantially less than men8
9Activity Class Baseball: The class will be divided into two teams and each team will have a chance to be “up to bat”, which means that they will each take turns answering questions and once they get three “outs” or incorrect answers the other team will be up to bat. Each correct answer is worth one run and the team with the most runs at the end wins.