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Nationalism and Imperialism -Key Concepts-. I. Nationalism Its Cultural Roots Its Cultural Roots Revival of National Languages Revival of National Languages.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism and Imperialism -Key Concepts-. I. Nationalism Its Cultural Roots Its Cultural Roots Revival of National Languages Revival of National Languages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism and Imperialism -Key Concepts-

2 I. Nationalism Its Cultural Roots Its Cultural Roots Revival of National Languages Revival of National Languages Special National Mission Special National Mission The Decline of Romantic Nationalism The Decline of Romantic Nationalism Tough-Minded Realism after 1848 Tough-Minded Realism after 1848

3 I. Nationalism (cont) Tough-Minded Realism after 1848 Tough-Minded Realism after The Cultural and Intellectual Climate --State-focused politics --The Dominance of “Realpolitik”— expedience and power Creation of the Modern Nation-State System, often through war Creation of the Modern Nation-State System, often through war

4 II. Germany: A Case Study Prevailing Conservatism in 1850 Prevailing Conservatism in “Junkers” --Romantic vision of war --Parliament rejected the Military Budget of 1862

5 II. Germany: A Case Study (cont) “Realpolitik Personified”: Otto von Bismarck ( ) “Realpolitik Personified”: Otto von Bismarck ( )--Background --Flexible and Pragmatic --Hated Liberalism, Democracy and Socialism --Manipulated Liberalism and Socialism to increase the power of the Prussian state

6 II. Germany: A Case Study (cont) Steps toward unification of Germany Steps toward unification of Germany --Austro-Prussian War (1866) --Battle of Sadowa --New North German Confederation --Franco-Prussian War ( ) --Releases Nationalistic frenzy --Upsets European Balance of Power

7 III. The Power of Competitive Nationalism Competition pursued in almost all areas of activity Competition pursued in almost all areas of activity Each nation refused to recognize any interests other than its own Each nation refused to recognize any interests other than its own Each nation was determined to prove its inherent historic superiority Each nation was determined to prove its inherent historic superiority

8 III. The Power of Competitive Nationalism (cont) International Application of Social Darwinism International Application of Social Darwinism Remaining Nationalistic “Hot Spots” Remaining Nationalistic “Hot Spots” --Russia and the Crimean War ( ) --Sergei Witte and modernization --Ireland and Home Rule

9 IV. Imperialism Anti-imperialist sentiment before the 1870’s Anti-imperialist sentiment before the 1870’s Mostly economic penetration before this point Mostly economic penetration before this point Assumption: Costs exceed profits from colonialism Assumption: Costs exceed profits from colonialism Colonies would sooner or later demand independence Colonies would sooner or later demand independence Countries absorbed with domestic turmoil Countries absorbed with domestic turmoil

10 IV. Imperialism (cont) The Great Age of Imperialism ( ) The Great Age of Imperialism ( )--Africa --South Pacific Islands --Southeast Asia --China --Central Asia

11 V. Causes of this Imperialistic Enthusiasm Missionary Activity and the Anti- Slavery Movement Missionary Activity and the Anti- Slavery Movement --Dr. David Livingstone Scientific Curiosity Scientific Curiosity A New Breed of Adventurers A New Breed of Adventurers --Carl Peters

12 V. Causes of this Imperialistic Enthusiasm (cont) --Cecil Rhodes --Boer War ( ) International Prestige through a Darwinian Struggle International Prestige through a Darwinian Struggle National Security and Naval Bases National Security and Naval Bases --Alfred T. Mahan

13 VI. Economic Motivations for Imperialistic Enthusiasm Belief that new markets must be found to prevent financial downturns Belief that new markets must be found to prevent financial downturns --revived mercantilism Source of Raw Materials Source of Raw Materials Target for Excess Capital Target for Excess Capital Economic Benefits of Imperialism were far less beneficial than assumed Economic Benefits of Imperialism were far less beneficial than assumed

14 VI. Economic Motivations (cont) European countries did not invest primarily in colonies European countries did not invest primarily in colonies --Only 10% of French investments in their colonies—only 5% for the Germans Trade followed the same pattern Trade followed the same pattern --Only 25% of British Trade with its colonies— only 11% for the French and.4% for the Germans European countries did the greatest volume of business with each other European countries did the greatest volume of business with each other Most important economic motivation: raw materials Most important economic motivation: raw materials Economics was thus an illusory stimulus Economics was thus an illusory stimulus

15 VII. The Fusion of Nationalism and Imperialism Huge Power Gap between European and non-European states Huge Power Gap between European and non-European states -- “Gunboat Diplomacy” --Battle of Omdurman (1898) --The Second Opium War ( )

16 VII. The Fusion of Nationalism and Imperialism (cont) European Rivalries intensified by imperialism European Rivalries intensified by imperialism India: The Pride of British Imperialism India: The Pride of British Imperialism The Growth of Popular Imperial Literature The Growth of Popular Imperial Literature --Rudyard Kipling --Gunga Din --Ernest Psichari

17 VIII. The Fusion of Racism and Imperialism Social Darwinism: “Fit” versus “Unfit” Races Social Darwinism: “Fit” versus “Unfit” Races “The White Man’s Burden” “The White Man’s Burden” The Benefits of this “Burden” The Benefits of this “Burden” --sati Disrespect and condescension toward indigenous peoples and cultures Disrespect and condescension toward indigenous peoples and cultures

18 VIII. The Fusion of Racism and Imperialism (cont) The Congo Free State in Africa: A Personal Fief for King Leopold II of Belgium ( ) The Congo Free State in Africa: A Personal Fief for King Leopold II of Belgium ( ) Exploitation of colonial possessions Exploitation of colonial possessions --The Dutch “Culture System”

19 IX. Criticism of Imperialism The Marxist Critique of Imperialism The Marxist Critique of Imperialism --J.A. Hobson’s Imperialism (1902) Need of the Rich to Drain off Surplus Capital Need of the Rich to Drain off Surplus Capital Opportunity to Divert Attention from the need for Domestic Reform Opportunity to Divert Attention from the need for Domestic Reform

20 IX. Criticism of Imperialism (cont) Moral condemnation of Imperialism Moral condemnation of Imperialism --Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness --George Orwell, Burmese Days (1933) --British Raj -- “one long struggle not to be laughed at.” Failure of the Western Liberal Tradition Failure of the Western Liberal Tradition

21 X. Colonial Responses to Western Imperialism Initial Response: Attempt to Drive the Imperialists away Initial Response: Attempt to Drive the Imperialists away “Traditionalists” who continue to resist in any way that they can “Traditionalists” who continue to resist in any way that they can “Modernizers” who learned western ways in order to later use them against imperialists “Modernizers” who learned western ways in order to later use them against imperialists

22 X. Colonial Responses to Western Imperialism (cont) Example of Modernizers: Meiji in Japan Example of Modernizers: Meiji in Japan Traditionalists and Modernizers struggled first with each other Traditionalists and Modernizers struggled first with each other Imperial Rule was built on a foundation of sand Imperial Rule was built on a foundation of sand --Ho Chi Minh --Liberalism, Nationalism and Marxist Socialism as colonial weapons


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