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International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle East regional Conference Liverpool, 26-29 September 2010 ‘Education for Intercultural Understanding.

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Presentation on theme: "International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle East regional Conference Liverpool, 26-29 September 2010 ‘Education for Intercultural Understanding."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle East regional Conference Liverpool, September 2010 ‘Education for Intercultural Understanding and Respect: a critical race perspective’ David Gillborn, Institute of Education, London

2 ‘Education for Intercultural Understanding and Respect: a critical race perspective’

3 1. The image of White racial victims 2. Race, class and educational achievement 3. Racism across the education system

4 1: The image of White racial victims

5 Which ONE if any of the following groups of people do you think suffers the greatest discrimination in British society today? Nationally Rep. Sample Muslim22% 1: The image of White racial victims

6 Which ONE if any of the following groups of people do you think suffers the greatest discrimination in British society today? Nationally Rep. Sample Muslim22% White British21% 1: The image of White racial victims

7

8 Is [immigration] good or bad for Britain? Bad:52% Working class33% middle You are labelled a racist if you criticise the amount of, or conduct of, immigrants Agree:76% working78% middle

9 Is [immigration] good or bad for Britain? Bad:52% Working class33% middle You are labelled a racist if you criticise the amount of, or conduct of, immigrants Agree:76% working78% middle Which of the following would you say has the most NEGATIVE impact on life in Britain today? Working Class: Drink/drugs (35%) > disrespect (23%) > immigration (21%) > rich/poor gap (17%) Most immigrants to Britain end up fitting in here if they're given sufficient time to do so Agree: working class 71% middle class 76%

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11

12 School low achievers are white and British, The Times White boys ‘are being left behind’ by education system, Daily Mail White boys ‘let down by education system, Daily Telegraph Deprived white boys ‘low achievers’, Daily Express White working-class boys are the worst performers in school, Independent Half school ‘failures’ are white working-class boys, says report, Guardian

13 White boys falling behind White, working-class boys have the worst GCSE results … Just 24 per cent of disadvantaged white boys now leave school with five or more good GCSEs. This compares with 33.7 per cent for black African boys from similar low-income households. There were fears last night that the figures could hand votes to the far-Right British National Party because additional funding is available to help children from ethnic minorities. Daily Mail, 13 January 2007

14 White boys falling behind White, working-class boys have the worst GCSE results … Just 24 per cent of disadvantaged white boys now leave school with five or more good GCSEs. This compares with 33.7 per cent for black African boys from similar low-income households. There were fears last night that the figures could hand votes to the far-Right British National Party because additional funding is available to help children from ethnic minorities. Daily Mail, 13 January 2007

15 White boys falling behind White, working-class boys have the worst GCSE results … Just 24 per cent of disadvantaged white boys now leave school with five or more good GCSEs. This compares with 33.7 per cent for black African boys from similar low-income households. There were fears last night that the figures could hand votes to the far-Right British National Party because additional funding is available to help children from ethnic minorities. Daily Mail, 13 January 2007

16 I don't want to stir up racial hatred, but… Cameron Watt, deputy director of the Centre for Social Justice and a key figure involved in a report on the subject published recently by former Tory leader Iain Duncan Smith, said: "There's a political lobby highlighting the issue of underachievement among black boys, and quite rightly so, but I don't think there's a single project specifically for white working-class boys. I don't want to stir up racial hatred, but that is something that should be addressed.“ Times Educational Supplement, 12 January 2007

17 Department for Communities & Local Government (2010) Tackling race inequality: a statement on race. London: HMSO.

18 We must recognise that we will not succeed in addressing racism without tackling all forms of prejudice and discrimination. (p, 12)

19 ‘Racism is also achieving a political voice through the British National Party (BNP) and other extreme racist groups. These groups seek to exploit legitimate worries (p. 10 ) … When we target help at one group, we cannot allow others to be left behind or to feel disconnected, otherwise there is a risk that our efforts will be exploited by those who would distort them to drive people apart. (…) No favours. No privileges. No special interest groups. Just fairness.’ (p. 12)

20 24.0% 56.0% 33.7% 5A*-C by FSM status & Ethnic Group Source: Department for Education & Skills (DfES)(2006) National Curriculum Assessment, GCSE and Equivalent Attainment and Post-16 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics in England 2005/06. SFR 46/2006, London, DfES, table % points 9.7% points

21 2: Race, class & educational achievement

22 24.0% 56.0% 33.7% 5+ A*-C incl. English & maths by ethnic group (percent, all pupils) Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

23 White working-class boys are the worst performers in school, Independent Half school ‘failures’ are white working- class boys, says report, Guardian

24 57% described self as “working class” Source: Survey by the National Centre for Social Research cited in BBC News Online (2007) What is working class?

25 13.2% of students receive Free School Meals Source: Department for Education & Skills (DfES)(2006) National Curriculum Assessment, GCSE and Equivalent Attainment and Post-16 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics in England 2005/06. SFR 46/2006, London, DfES, table 32.

26 FSM Status by Ethnic Group (percent, all pupils) 10.2% Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

27 21.5% FSM Status by Ethnic Group (percent, all pupils) 10.2% Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

28 21.5% 31.1% FSM Status by Ethnic Group (percent, all pupils) 10.2% Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

29 34.3% 21.5% 31.1% FSM Status by Ethnic Group (percent, all pupils) 10.2% Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

30 34.3% 21.5% 31.1% FSM Status by Ethnic Group (percent, all pupils) 46.2% 10.2% Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

31 24.0% 56.0% 33.7% 5+ A*-C incl. English & maths by ethnic group (percent, all pupils) Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2

32 FSM 5+ A*-C incl. English & maths by ethnic group (FSM only: percent, all pupils) Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2 FSM

33 3: Racism (business as usual….?)

34

35 “… institutional racism misses the fact that in many parts of the country, the colour of disadvantage is white as well as brown or black (…) these days, it is not simply to do with race, but a host of other factors, often including your economic background.”

36 Critical Race Theory Derrick BellRichard DelgadoKimberlé Crenshaw Gloria Ladson-BillingsWilliam Tate IV

37 CRT begins with a number of basic insights. One is that racism is normal, not aberrant, in American society. Because racism is an ingrained feature of our landscape, it looks ordinary and natural to persons in the culture. Formal equal opportunity – rules and laws that insist on treating blacks and whites (for example) alike – can thus remedy only the more extreme and shocking forms of injustice, the ones that do stand out. It can do little about the business-as-usual forms of racism that people of color confront every day … Richard Delgado & Jean Stefancic (2000, p. xvi)

38 The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people. The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (1999, p. 28) Institutional Racism: outcomes not intentions

39 Racism & Education

40 Teachers

41 Racism & Education Teachers Under-estimate academic ability Over-estimate challenge & threat Discipline Black students more severely Disproportionately place Black students in bottom sets View Black families as disrupted & unsupportive

42 Racism & Education Teachers Policymakers

43 Public Administration Select Committee: Inquiry into Good Government 23 October goodgovt.cfm … much of our policy making is evidence free, prejudice driven and hysteria driven (particularly hysteria generated by the press). Paul Flynn MP

44 ‘The gifted and talented scheme will identify children by looking at ability, rather than attainment, to capitalise on the talents of the individual child, regardless of ethnic background’ Departmental rebuttal on BBC News On-Line (2002)

45 ‘Gifted & Talented’ White Black Caribbean Black African

46 ‘Gifted & Talented’ White Black Caribbean Black African

47 ‘Gifted & Talented’ White Black Caribbean Black African

48 Racism & Education Teachers Policymakers Ofsted: schools inspectorate

49 Racism & Education Teachers Policymakers Ofsted: schools inspectorate Race equality training is piecemeal Refuse to check race equality compliance Race inequality is not identified – even when the evidence is reported!

50 Racism & Education Teachers Policymakers Ofsted: schools inspectorate Media & Commentators

51 Dr Patricia Morgan “from the research group Civitas”

52 Dr Patricia Morgan “from the research group Civitas” “What do you mean by ‘family life’? Because I think we’re getting to a feral situation where we have men, sort of tom-catting ’round the neighbourhood siring children in various homes. [draws breath] This is almost return to planet of the apes.” (…) It is in - prominent amongst West Indians. An- and sadly, its one of the - it seems to be the reason for the higher educational failure rate – and occupational failure rate – of Black boys.” BBC radio 5live, 11 December 2006

53 micro-aggression The ‘many sudden, stunning, or dispiriting transactions that mar the days of women and folks of color. Like water dripping on sandstone, they can be thought of as small acts of racism, consciously or unconsciously perpetrated … These assumptions, in turn, continue to inform our public civic institutions – government, schools, churches – and our private, personal, and corporate lives’ Delgado & Stefancic (2001, p. 2)

54 Conclusions

55 Race inequality is not an accident

56 Conclusions Policy takes for granted the centrality of a white subject; Race equality and ethnic diversity are treated as peripheral – complicating factors – outside the ‘mainstream’; Policy promotes structures, procedures and priorities that actively disadvantage minoritized groups. Race inequality is not an accident

57 What about racism? Does current practice – and the plans for the future – recognize the complexity of racism? Or do they ‘blame the victim’?

58 Racism : subtle, extensive and complex; Policy: usually sustains inequality rather than challenging it.

59 “If there is no struggle, there is no progress… Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did, and it never will.” Frederick Douglass (1857) Racism, Progress and Political Struggle

60 International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle East regional Conference Liverpool, September 2010 ‘Education for Intercultural Understanding and Respect: a critical race perspective’ David Gillborn, Institute of Education, London

61 The Colour of Numbers problems with statistical research Everything that can be counted, does not necessarily count; everything that counts, cannot necessarily be counted. Albert Einstein Myth of Numbers == science, neutrality, truth Racism is hidden amid a range of other factors (maternal education; prior attainment; setting; etc) Inequalities are ‘removed’ by ‘controlling’ away all but the most extreme inequalities Wiping the slate clean: past inequalities are blamed on the student (prior attainment erases all prior racism)

62 Resistance & Racism Education is worth fighting for Don’t wait for (or trust) favours from above Make connections Document what you do: measure success Historicize Survive: be strategic Success is never final

63 24.0% 56.0% 33.7% 5+ A*-C incl. English & maths by ethnic group (percent, all pupils) Source: DCSF (2009) Key Stage 4 Attainment by Pupil Characteristics, in England 2008/09’ (SFR 34/2009) table 2


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