2PRINCIPLES OFVERBAL MESSAGESMessage meanings are in people:As you change, you change the meanings you created out of past messages.
3Messages are denotative and connotative Denotation: Dictionary meaning Connotations: Emotional or subjective meaningDistinction between connotations and denotationsSnarl: Highly negativePurr Words: Highly positive
4Messages vary in abstraction Abstractions: a general concept derived from a class of objects; a part representation of some whole. Also the quality of being abstract.Example: Health may be a general conceptSpecific and concrete: wellness, disease, physical therapy, administration, or psychology.
5MESSAGE MEANINGS VARY IN POLITENESS Politeness and DirectnessPoliteness and GenderPoliteness Outline
6MESSAGES VARY IN ASSERTIVENESS Refers to a willingness to stand up for your rights but with respect for the rights of others.Assertive people speak their minds and welcome others to do so.Assertiveness is valued more by those cultures that stress cooperation and independence.
7ASSERTIVE AND CULTUREAssertiveness is not always the most desirable response.Assertive in one culture may create problems in another culture.Assertiveness with an elder in many Asian and Hispanic cultures may be seen as insulting and disrespectful.
8ASSERTIVENESSSuggestions for communicating assertiveness:Describe the problem.State how this problem affects you.Propose solutions that are workable.Confirm understanding.
9MESSAGES ARE INFLUENCED BY CULTURE AND GENDER Cultural InfluencesThe principle of cooperationThe principle of peaceful relationsThe principle of self-denigrationThe principle of directnessCultural differences often create misunderstandings. Be aware of how cultures view direct and indirect speech.
10Gender Influences: Women use more polite speech when seeking to gain another person’s compliance.seek agreement in conversation and in conflict situations more often than men do.What effective communication strategies do men use?
11Disconfirmation and Confirmation Refers to the extent to which you acknowledge anther person.Disconfirmation: a communication pattern in which we ignore presence as well as that person’s communications.Rejection is not the same as disconfirmation. In rejection, you disagree with the person.
12Disconfirmation and Confirmation Confirmation is the opposite of disconfirmation.In confirmation you not only acknowledge the presence of the other person but also indicate your acceptance of this person’s self-definition.Ableism: discrimination against people with disabilities.
13RACIST SPEECHPuts down, minimizes, and marginalizes a person or group because of race.What is the difference between individual racism and institutional racism?
14HETEROSEXIST SPEECHDefinition: Refers to attitudes, behaviors, language that disparage gay men and lesbians.1. Give one example of Institutional heterosexism.2. What is normal or natural? Is there such a thing?
15Avoid Heterosexist Speech Avoid offensive nonverbal mannerism that parody stereotypes.Avoid complimenting gay men and women by saying they “don’t look it.”Avoid making the assumption that gay or lesbians know what other gay or lesbians think.Avoid denying individual differences.
16AGEIST SPEECHRefers to prejudice against older people and people of other age groups. For instance, saying that “all teenagers are selfish and undependable.”Linguistic ageism: calling someone a “little old lady” or “an agile 65-year-old.”
17SEXIST SPEECHInvolves prejudicial attitudes about men and women based on rigid beliefs about gender roles.Institutional sexismSexist language
18CULTURAL IDENIFIERS Race and Nationality Affectional Orientation Age Sex
19PRINCIPLES for USING VERBAL MESSAGES EFFECTIVELY Extensionalize: avoid intensional orientationIntensional orientationExtentional orientationSee the individual: Avoid allnessDistinguish between facts and inferences: avoid fact-inference confusion
20DISCRIMINATE AMONG: ABOID INDISCRIMINATION A form of stereotypingFocuses on differencesDoesn’t respect the uniqueness of the individual or group
21TALK ABOUT THE MIDDLE: AVOID POLARIZATION The tendency to look at the world and to describe it in terms of extremes—good or bad, positive or negative, healthy or sick, brilliant or stupid, rich or poor, and so on.
22UPDATE MESSAGES: AVOID STATIC EVALUATION When you retain a judgment of a person, despite the inevitable changes in the person, you’re engaging in static evaluation.