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Race and Ethnicity.  Race A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such.

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Presentation on theme: "Race and Ethnicity.  Race A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such."— Presentation transcript:

1 Race and Ethnicity

2  Race A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape.

3 Perceived biological characteristics that distinguish people Not scientific fact – race is “murky” business

4 “Concept has no validity in the human species” “race is self-identification by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify” or are Identified What are "Races"?

5 Construction of Race: U.S.  From Eugenics to Human Genome Project   Race: The Power of Illusion Race: The Power of Illusion

6 So why study it?  “We all live racially structured lives”  2 major myths:  1. any pure race  2. any superior race

7  Affects life chances… education, health, religious views, occupation, longevity

8  Dominant Group Group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society. Perceptions of innate superiority, ability to oppress minority group members, ability to control political power

9  Ethnic Group A collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics (e.g., language and religion)

10  Subordinate Group “minority” A group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group.

11 Continuum of race relations

12  Ethnic Pluralism The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.

13  Assimilation A process by which members of minority groups become absorbed into the dominant culture and distinction disappears.

14 Blocked Assimilation  Segregation Spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender and/or religion.

15 Internal Colonialism Occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group within a country

16 Native Americans: Example of Internal Colonialism  1830 Indian Removal Act - Called for relocation of all Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi.  In the “Trail of Tears,” the U.S. Army rounded up all 16,000 Cherokees and marched them to Oklahoma.  4,000 Cherokees died.  1890 Wounded Knee ended the war and resulted in placement on reservations.

17  Genocide The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.

18 Global example  Genocide in Rwanda -- The Real Ghosts of Rwanda Genocide  Genocide Genocide

19 The Country Featured in Tuesdays Film was A. True B. False

20  What are the driving forces behind these varieties of race relations?

21  Prejudice A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about the members of selected racial and ethnic groups.  How might it play out in our everyday lives? How might it play out in our everyday lives?

22  Racism A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.

23 The Vicious Cycle of Racism

24 Cycle leads to  Discrimination Actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group.

25 How Far Have We Come? Majority of Americans describe Obama as our first Black President What does this tell us About our understanding Of race in America?

26  Shopping While Black Shopping While Black

27 History of race in the U.S. The 20 th Century

28  Theory of racial formation - actions by the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations -- the politics of race  But social protest movements help to rearticulate our understanding of race  See -- www.jimcrowhistory.orgwww.jimcrowhistory.org

29  Between 1892 and 1921 -- estimated 6,000 Lynchings of African Americans  From Slavery to “Jim Crow” to Civil Disobedience -- Civil Rights Acts of 1964 & 1965

30 As of 2000 the U.S. Census allows for multi-racial classification  Today over 9 million Americans report being of more than one race  An increase of 32 percent since 2000

31  Almost two million interracial marriages  1 in 7 new marriages are between different racial, ethnic identities

32  In 1967, there were still sixteen U.S. states that had laws on the books banning interracial marriage. That year the US. Supreme Court unanimously struck down laws banning interracial marriages with these words: "The freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides within the individual and cannot be infringed on by the State.”

33 Mildred and Richard Loving’s case led the U.S. Supreme Court to strike down laws against interracial marriages

34  1998 - South Carolina voted to abolish it’s “symbolic law” against miscegenation  40% voted to keep it  2000 – Alabama 32 percent voted to keep it.

35 "One-drop rule: American social and legal custom of classifying anyone with one black ancestor, regardless of how far back, as black.” “hypodescent rule”

36 A Color Blind Society?  His (Obama's) election demonstrates America's extraordinary capacity to renew itself and adapt to a changing world," said former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan.

37 Are We really “Post Racial”?  Obama isn't 'post-racial.' He isn't the messiah whose coming ends bigotry and inequality for all time," Cynthia Tucker Atlanta Journal-Constitution.  Growing Pains:Talking about Race Growing Pains:Talking about Race  Are We really Post-Racial Are We really Post-Racial

38 Symbolic Ethnicity  “a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old country; a love for and pride in a tradition that can be felt without having to be incorporated in everyday behavior”  Herbert Gans

39 Merton’s types of discrimination and prejudice Non-prejudiced/ non- discriminator – “all weather liberal” Non-prejudiced discriminator – “fair weather liberal” Prejudiced Non-discriminator – “fair weather bigot” Prejudice Discriminator - “all weather bigot”

40 Theories  Dollard –  frustration aggression  Unable to strike out at real source of frustration

41  Scapegoat A person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.

42 Adorno’s Authoritarian Personality Type --  excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking.

43  Stereotypes  rigid mental image Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories. – bigotry motive e.g., all blonds are dumb, all blacks are good athletes….. Often includes – racist motives

44 White racial frames -- racist ideas, stereotypes, images, stories, etc..  What are some motives….  Ideological – beliefs of superiority  Bigotry – stereotypes – white fright  Emotional – makes one feel better about one’s self  Criminal – materialist – race hatred due to economic fears  Political territorial – feeling an area belongs to the majority group

45 Motives continued  Group norm - seems acceptable, even desirable e.g., after 9/11  Structural – demanded or implicitly expected.

46 Social distance  The extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own. Bogardus Scale

47 Hartley Study  Wallonians, Denierians, Perenians….. Significance of Study:  Humans have shown a universal ability to be prejudiced against people they have never met!

48  Bobo and Klugel found:  Younger and More Educated score lower on the Social Distance Scale. = less prejudiced

49  Individual Discrimination One-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.

50 Institutional Discrimination  Day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of minority groups. While no longer legal – some informal practices linger and continue to benefit the majority group

51 Why do White Americans Have more wealth than minority groups? Luck or a history of Institutional Racism?  Invisible Knapsack Invisible Knapsack

52 Feagin’s types  Isolate – harmful action by a dominant group member and is supported by other dominant group members in the immediate community. (e.g., a judge who gives harsher sentencing to members of a minority group)  Small-group - similar but not supported by other members of the dominant group -- e.g., racially motivated vandalism

53  Direct Institutionalized – e.g., intentional exclusion of people of color from public institutions  Indirect - unintended consequences such as special education classes that were intended for students with various disabilities – but some claim they have resulted in segregation  Wealth Disparity by Race Wealth Disparity by Race

54 Home Ownership  Housing Segregation still taking place  “ghettos with grass” - Whites move out of suburban neighborhoods when blacks and Latino(a) residents move in.  Institutional Racism – Wealth Institutional Racism – Wealth

55 Most Racially Segregated Metropolitan Areas RankCitySegregation Index 1Detroit87.6 2Chicago85.8 3Cleveland85.1 4Milwaukee82.8 5New York82.2

56 Who Are We Today?  Latino Americans  If we include those also here illegally, the number of Latinos in the U.S. is estimated to be 45 million – largest minority group  The Bureau predicts they will number more than 96 million in 2050.

57 Diverse group  For example Mexicans or Chicano/as (largest segment -- approx. 2/3), Puerto Ricans (since 1917 have been able to move freely to and from the mainland), Cubans (different experiences according to their class origins before immigration)

58  Asian Americans --- Also very diverse group -- some examples:  Chinese -- transcontinental railroad, gold rush / Japanese -- 120,000 internment camps  Korean kye represents a strong sense of community  Filipinos - over one million  Indochinese -- Vietnamese, Cambodians, Thailand, Laos.. More recent immigration

59  African Americans (African descent) or “ Blacks” (Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, the Caribbean) -- unique and different experiences in that while both have experienced discrimination (recent example of Haitian refugees) African American experiences have distinct relationship of slavery and “Jim Crow”

60  Blacks have a 375-year history on this continent: 245 involving slavery, 100 involving discrimination, and only 30 involving anything else. — Historian Roger Wilkins

61  Race Discussion with Spike Lee Race Discussion with Spike Lee

62 Starting the conversation by acknowledging privilege How do we open the conversation?  A Helpful Resource: http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1240/sotomayor-supreme-court- affirmative-action-minority-preferences http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1240/sotomayor-supreme-court- affirmative-action-minority-preferences  http://colorandmoney.blogspot.com/

63  Growing Pains ?  By 2056 the roots of the average U.S. resident will be from everywhere except Western Europe..... Today 5 workers for every one Social Security recipient -- by 2020, 3 for every 1 and the three will be non-white


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