2Race A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape.
3Perceived biological characteristics that distinguish people Not scientific fact – race is “murky” business
4“Concept has no validity in the human species” “race is self-identification by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify” or are Identified What are "Races"?
5Construction of Race: U.S. From Eugenics to Human Genome ProjectRace: The Power of Illusion
6“We all live racially structured lives” So why study it?“We all live racially structured lives”2 major myths:1. any pure race2. any superior race
7Affects life chances… education, health, religious views, occupation, longevity
8Dominant Group Group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society. Perceptions of innate superiority, ability to oppress minority group members, ability to control political power
9Ethnic Group A collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics (e.g., language and religion)
10Subordinate Group “minority” A group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group.
12Ethnic Pluralism The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.
13Assimilation A process by which members of minority groups become absorbed into the dominant culture and distinction disappears.
14Blocked AssimilationSegregation Spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender and/or religion.14
15Internal ColonialismOccurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group within a country
16Native Americans: Example of Internal Colonialism 1830 Indian Removal Act - Called for relocation of all Native Americans to land west of the Mississippi.In the “Trail of Tears,” the U.S. Army rounded up all 16,000 Cherokees and marched them to Oklahoma.4,000 Cherokees died.1890 Wounded Knee ended the war and resulted in placement on reservations.
17Genocide The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
18Global example Genocide in Rwanda -- The Real Ghosts of Rwanda
19The Country Featured in Tuesdays Film was TrueFalse
20What are the driving forces behind these varieties of race relations?
21Prejudice A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about the members of selected racial and ethnic groups.How might it play out in our everyday lives?
22Racism A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
28Theory of racial formation - actions by the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations -- the politics of raceBut social protest movements help to rearticulate our understanding of raceSee --
29Between 1892 and 1921 -- estimated 6,000 Lynchings of African Americans From Slavery to “Jim Crow” to Civil Disobedience -- Civil Rights Acts of & 1965
30As of 2000 the U.S. Census allows for multi-racial classification Today over 9 million Americans report being of more than one raceAn increase of 32 percent since 2000
31Almost two million interracial marriages 1 in 7 new marriages are between different racial, ethnic identities
32In 1967, there were still sixteen U. S In 1967, there were still sixteen U.S. states that had laws on the books banning interracial marriage. That year the US. Supreme Court unanimously struck down laws banning interracial marriages with these words: "The freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides within the individual and cannot be infringed on by the State.”
33Mildred and Richard Loving’s case led the U. S Mildred and Richard Loving’s case led the U.S. Supreme Court to strike down laws against interracial marriages
341998 - South Carolina voted to abolish it’s “symbolic law” against miscegenation 40% voted to keep it2000 – Alabama 32 percent voted to keep it.
35"One-drop rule: American social and legal custom of classifying anyone with one black ancestor, regardless of how far back, as black.” “hypodescent rule”
36A Color Blind Society?His (Obama's) election demonstrates America's extraordinary capacity to renew itself and adapt to a changing world," said former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan.
37Are We really “Post Racial”? Obama isn't 'post-racial.' He isn't the messiah whose coming ends bigotry and inequality for all time," Cynthia Tucker Atlanta Journal-Constitution .Growing Pains:Talking about RaceAre We really Post-Racial
38Symbolic Ethnicity“a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old country; a love for and pride in a tradition that can be felt without having to be incorporated in everyday behavior”Herbert Gans
40Theories Dollard – frustration aggression Unable to strike out at real source of frustration
41Scapegoat A person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.
42Adorno’s Authoritarian Personality Type -- excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking.
43Often includes – racist motives Stereotypesrigid mental image Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories. – bigotry motivee.g., all blonds are dumb, all blacks are good athletes…..Often includes – racist motives
44White racial frames -- racist ideas, stereotypes, images, stories, etc.. What are some motives….Ideological – beliefs of superiorityBigotry – stereotypes – white frightEmotional – makes one feel better about one’s selfCriminal – materialist – race hatred due to economic fearsPolitical territorial – feeling an area belongs to the majority group
45Motives continuedGroup norm - seems acceptable, even desirable e.g., after 9/11Structural – demanded or implicitly expected.
46Social distanceThe extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own. Bogardus Scale
47Hartley StudyWallonians, Denierians, Perenians….. Significance of Study:Humans have shown a universal ability to be prejudiced against people they have never met!47
48Bobo and Klugel found:Younger and More Educated score lower on the Social Distance Scale. = less prejudiced
49Individual Discrimination One-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.
50Institutional Discrimination Day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of minority groups. While no longer legal – some informal practices linger and continue to benefit the majority group
51Why do White Americans Have more wealth than minority groups Why do White Americans Have more wealth than minority groups? Luck or a history of Institutional Racism?Invisible Knapsack
52Feagin’s typesIsolate – harmful action by a dominant group member and is supported by other dominant group members in the immediate community. (e.g., a judge who gives harsher sentencing to members of a minority group)Small-group - similar but not supported by other members of the dominant group -- e.g., racially motivated vandalism
53Direct Institutionalized – e. g Direct Institutionalized – e.g., intentional exclusion of people of color from public institutionsIndirect - unintended consequences such as special education classes that were intended for students with various disabilities – but some claim they have resulted in segregationWealth Disparity by Race
54Home Ownership Housing Segregation still taking place “ghettos with grass” - Whites move out of suburban neighborhoods when blacks and Latino(a) residents move in.Institutional Racism – Wealth
55Most Racially Segregated Metropolitan Areas RankCitySegregation Index1Detroit87.62Chicago85.83Cleveland85.14Milwaukee82.85New York82.2
56Who Are We Today? Latino Americans If we include those also here illegally, the number of Latinos in the U.S. is estimated to be 45 million – largest minority groupThe Bureau predicts they will number more than 96 million in 2050.
57Diverse groupFor example Mexicans or Chicano/as (largest segment -- approx. 2/3), Puerto Ricans (since have been able to move freely to and from the mainland), Cubans (different experiences according to their class origins before immigration)
58Asian Americans --- Also very diverse group -- some examples: Chinese -- transcontinental railroad, gold rush / Japanese ,000 internment campsKorean kye represents a strong sense of communityFilipinos - over one millionIndochinese -- Vietnamese, Cambodians, Thailand, Laos.. More recent immigration
59African Americans (African descent) or “Blacks” (Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, the Caribbean) -- unique and different experiences in that while both have experienced discrimination (recent example of Haitian refugees) African American experiences have distinct relationship of slavery and “Jim Crow”
60Blacks have a 375-year history on this continent: 245 involving slavery, 100 involving discrimination, and only 30 involving anything else. — Historian Roger Wilkins
62Starting the conversation by acknowledging privilege How do we open the conversation?A Helpful Resource: affirmative-action-minority-preferences
63Growing Pains?By 2056 the roots of the average U.S. resident will be from everywhere except Western Europe Today 5 workers for every one Social Security recipient -- by 2020, 3 for every 1 and the three will be non-white