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Race in the UK Is there racial equality?

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1 Race in the UK Is there racial equality?
Learning Intentions: To examine the nature and extent of racial inequality in the UK. Is there racial equality?

2 This presentation looks at
The demographics of race in the UK and Scotland Racial inequalities Government attempts to create equal opportunities Progress towards racial equality Attitudes towards race

3 Multicultural UK Racial composition of England, 2010, ONS
All 51,809,700 White 45,313,300 Mixed 956,700 Asian/Asian British 3,166.80 Black/Black British 1,521,400 Chinese or other ethnic group 851,600 Racial composition of England, 2010, ONS The majority of Britain’s minority ethnic population live in the large cities of England.

4 Multicultural Scotland
Above L-R; Aamer Anwar solicitor (Lawyer, Sheridan trial), The Glasgow Girls, anti deportation campaigners; Agnesa Murselaj, Amal Azzudin and Roza Salih, Humza Yousaf MSP (SNP), Hanzala Malik MSP (LAB). Scotland has a smaller proportion of BME residents than England; The 2010 Annual Population Survey by the Scottish government and the ONS estimated Scotland's total population stood at 5,149,900, of whom about 82,900 were "Asian or Asian British", 17,000 "Black or Black British", 16,500 were Chinese and 23,000 mixed race, with a further 30,700 "other". The greatest concentration of the Scottish BME population is in Glasgow and to some extent its suburbs. In recent years East Renfrewshire has seen the largest percentage growth in BME population as residents move to the outer southern Glasgow suburbs.

5 Race is not just defined by colour
White people can be racist towards each other! There is a long history of anti-Irish racism in the UK. More recently there have been cases of anti-English racism in Scotland and racist attacks against eastern European immigrants. Under the Equality Act (2010), racial discrimination arises when a person or group is treated less favourably than another in similar circumstances 'on racial grounds'. These are defined as colour, race nationality (including citizenship), or ethnic or national origins. Discrimination might be on the grounds that a person was black (colour), Chinese (ethnic or national origins rather than nationality if the person came from Malaysia), or Pakistani (nationality), and it includes discrimination against white people (grounds of colour), or against Europeans of particular nationalities (for example, Irish, English, Polish).

6 Islamophobia Islamophobia
Racial tensions, in general have increased since the 9/11 attacks on America. The 7/7 bombings in London and the Glasgow airport attack have also heightened tensions. Racial tensions have increased since the 9/11 attacks on America. The 7/7 bombings in London and the recent plane bombings scare have heightened tensions, usually referred to as “Islamophobia” between Muslims and white Britons. There have been calls for “passenger profiling” of air passengers, meaning that Asians may not be allowed on planes. In April 2006, a man in Cumbria was jailed for racially abusing worshippers at a mosque. Bryan Cork shouted slurs including "proud to be British" and "go back to where you came from" outside Carlisle's Brook Street mosque. This is just one of many similar attacks, many of which no doubt go unreported. The men who were arrested for the planned plane bombings in the UK in the summer of were all British. It has been claimed that Tony Blair’s foreign policy (support for the war in Iraq and support for Israel) has created a new breed of pro- al queda UK terrorist. There is therefore the suspicion by some people that all Muslims are terrorists in the same way that some people thought all Irish were terrorists during the Northern Ireland troubles. Islamophobia

7 Race crime Race crime is defined as any charge of racially aggravated
harassment and behaviour in terms of Section 50A of the Criminal Law (Consolidation) (Scotland) Act 1995 or Section 18, 19 or 23(1)a of the Public Order Act 1980 or any racial aggravation in terms of Section 96 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. In the year , the Scottish Procurator Fiscal Office received reports of 4,518 charges relating to race crime, 8% more than in This is the highest number reported in the last six years. Court proceedings were taken by the Procurator Fiscal in relation to 81% of the total charges. These figures do not, of course represent the actual levels of racist crime in Scotland as often racist behaviour is not reported.

8 Racial Harassment: The BNP
At the European Elections of June 2009, the racist British National Party (BNP) managed to have two MEPs elected. Many who voted BNP may not have been aware of the party’s history of racial violence and intolerance. The BNP benefitted from a low turn-out and widespread public displeasure of the major parties in the aftermath of the MPs expenses scandals. Recession, unemployment and insecurity are the classic breeding grounds for the Far Right. The BNP have several local Councillors in England and is becoming increasingly sophisticated in portraying itself as a “normal” political party. The BNP failed to win representation in either the 2010 UK, 2011 Scottish parliament or 2012 local elections. The election of Nick Griffin, the leader of the BNP, and his colleague Andrew Brons, a former National Front chairman, has provoked a legal challenge from the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). The EHRC believes the BNP’s race-based membership policy is racist and illegal. The EHRC is seeking a court order to force it to adopt equal opportunities policies. The Royal British Legion has publicly called on Mr Griffin to stop wearing its poppy emblem; The Government is pondering banning BNP members from teaching, just as they are already banned from the police and prison services. The Equalities Bill is expected to include a clause explicitly to stop the BNP and its ilk from insisting on race-based membership. Britain's civil servants imposed a "cordon sanitaire" around British National Party MEPs. The officials isolated the BNP members as they took their two seats in the European Parliament. The pair were banned from a reception for British MEPs, hosted by Baroness Kinnock, the Europe minister. The BNP will benefit from the income received from the European Parliament’s generous financial support for elected MEPs. Nick Griffin, estimates that as much as £200,000 a year will be made available to each MEP and he has announced that most of it would be directed to building the BNP. "We'd have full time regional organisers, full time campaign team leaders, training courses for local authorities and media spokesmen," Not in My Name

9 HIGH PROFILE RACIAL INCIDENTS
Liverpool striker Luis Suarez was judged to have used racist language towards Manchester United defender Patrice Evra. He was banned by the FA for 8 matches. Chelsea captain John Terry appeared in court charged with racially abusing QPR defender Anton Ferdinand. Terry was found not guilty.

10 Institutional Racism: The Met
Institutional racism remains a problem. The term came into the public domain after the botched investigation by the Metropolitan Police into the murder of Stephen Lawrence. The force accepted it was institutionally racist. “the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racial stereotyping which disadvantages minority ethnic people”. In 1993, Stephen Lawrence was murdered in London. The attack was completely racist. Stephen was a quiet, studious school pupil, on his way home after playing with friends. He was stabbed and died from his injuries. The poor police response and murder investigation resulted in the McPherson report and the admission from the Metropolitan Police that the force was “institutionally racist”. Institutional Racism happens when an organisation's procedures and policies amount to disadvantaging people from minority ethnic backgrounds. It is defined by the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry as: 'the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racial stereotyping which disadvantages minority ethnic people'. In 2006, BBC journalist Mark Daly, who in an earlier undercover enquiry “The Secret policeman” revealed racism within the Manchester police force, alleged in a BBC documentary that the police had collaborated with the four accused of Stephen’s murder. The four men were found not guilty of the murder and the botched police investigation has been widely blamed for their acquittal. Above: Acquitted of the murder of Stephen Lawrence: Neil Acourt, Gary Dobson, Luke Knight and Jamie Acourt McPherson report

11 Stephen Lawrence Re-Trial
In December 2011, Gary Dobson, 35, and David Norris, 34, were found guilty of the murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence, some 17 years after the original trial. This was made possible after changes to the “double jeopardy” law, which means a case can now be re-opened if there is “new and compelling evidence”. Guilty

12 Continued racial problems at the met
2012 Met race allegations The Metropolitan Police continues to be dogged by accusations of racism. In 2012 there were several allegations of racial abuse and a number of police officers have been suspended. There have been 51 complaints of racism in 2012 alone. London Mayor, Boris Johnson admits that “there is much still to do.”

13 Government Action: Race Relations Acts
Overt racial discrimination (i.e. name calling, bullying, refusal of jobs) has been illegal since the Race Relations Act of 1976. This law makes it illegal to discriminate in jobs, housing and public services, on the basis of a person’s ethnic background, although amazingly the police service was, at the time, omitted from this Act. The Race Relations Act was incorporated into the new Equalities Act (October 2010) The Scottish Government has also launched a variety of anti-racist campaigns and supported the Show Racism the Red Card initiative. Overt racial discrimination (i.e. name calling, bullying, refusal of jobs) has been illegal since the Race Relations Act of 1976. This law makes it illegal to discriminate in jobs, housing and public services, on the basis of a person’s ethnic background, although amazingly the police service was at the time, omitted from this Act. It also makes it illegal for a person or a group of people to “promote” racial hatred. The updated Race Relations Act of 2003 includes the police as well as having certain other new features. The onus is now on the public and private sector to show it is pro-active in seeking good race relations, rather than defending itself as “what have we done wrong”. Companies now will set targets for increasing their numbers of people from minority backgrounds at appropriate levels in the organisation and actively address the whole way the company goes about its business, from its advertising, public image, promotion procedures to social opportunities. This if course does not mean that racism goes away just because Parliament has made it illegal. It does though make potentially racist employers think twice before acting in a racist manner or bigots on the ground offending people with stupid behaviour. It also creates a legal framework which provides an opportunity for victims to seek justice. Overt discrimination is of course very damaging to those at the wrong end of it. Racial harassment, be it “low level” in the form of so-called jokes, or name calling, can be very hurtful, especially to children. The Crime and Disorder Act 1986 has a section for “racially aggravated offences or so-called “hate crimes”. Physical harassment is a serious crime and a genuine problem in certain parts of the country. In the summer of 2001, fuelled by tensions relating to unemployment and poverty there were race riots in four English cities. The Scottish Government’s Scotland against Racism campaign tries to tackle racism in Scotland, mostly by education, but also through public information, enabling minority groups to become aware of their rights under the law. Jobcentreplus Scotland has appointed a minority ethnic development officer for Scotland to build links with organisations and work more closely with minority ethnic clients to help break “the glass door” (see slide 7) The 1976 Act created the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) which has been incorporated into the new Equality and Human Rights Commission, set up in October The new commission brings together the work of the three previous equality commissions and also takes on responsibility for the other aspects of equality: age, sexual orientation and religion or belief, as well as human rights.

14 THE EQUALITY ACT 2010 Understanding the 2010 Equality Act
The Equality Act replaces the Race Relations and other racial equal opportunities acts: Race is a “protected characteristic.” Discrimination; when "someone is treated less favourably than another person because of a protected characteristic” remains very illegal. Understanding the 2010 Equality Act

15 THE EQUALITY ACT 2010 Introduces “positive action”. This means that employers can now favour under-represented groups – provided the candidates are of equal suitability – to increase the diversity of their workforces.

16 GOVERNMENT ACTION: THE EHRC
The EHRC replaced the old Commission for Racial Equality in 2008. It’s job is to support the implementation of the Equality Act. It seeks to promote good race relations and offer legal advice to organisations and individuals. The EHRC derives its powers from the Equality Act 2006. Section 3 states the EHRC has a general duty to work towards a the development of a society where equality and rights are rooted. This is taken to mean, people’s ability to achieve their potential is not limited by prejudice or discrimination, (b) there is respect for and protection of each individual’s human rights (including respect for the dignity and worth of each individual), (c) each person has an equal opportunity to participate in society, and (d) there is mutual respect between communities based on understanding and valuing of diversity and on shared respect for equality and human rights. Section 20 gives the EHRC the power to carry out investigations when it has the "suspicion" of unlawful discrimination taking place. Before this had been limited to a requirement of "reasonable suspicion" which in effect led the predecessors to be much more cautious. Section 30 strengthens the EHRC's ability to apply for judicial review and to intervene in court proceedings, through giving explicit statutory provision for such action. Sections 31-2 gives the EHRC a new power to assess public authorities' compliance with their positive equality duties. They can issue "compliance notices" if it finds a public authority is failing in its duties. Public authorities, importantly, are bound under the Human Tights Act 1(998) to act in a way compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights. The EHRC Trevor Phillips, chair of EHRC

17 The muslim women power list
The EHRC publishes the Muslim Women Power List in order to challenge some of the stereotypes about Muslim women, and to highlight the fact that they share the ambitions and challenges of all working women: to succeed at a good job and often to combine marriage and motherhood with a fulfilling career. Sayeeda Warsi (Minister without Portfolio at the Cabinet Office and Chair of the Conservative Party was named as the UK’s most powerful Muslim woman. Muslim women power list 2009

18 2010 Record Number of BME MPs
There are 27 minority ethnic MPs, an increase of 13 from Helen Grant becomes the first woman of African descent to represent the Conservatives at Westminster. Shabana Mahmood (LAB), above Left, became the first ever female Muslim MP. Priti Patel, above Right, became the first Conservative Asian female MP. 2010 Record Number of BME MPs

19 Government of scotland
Scotland now has two BME MSPs. There were many more BME candidates but not in winnable seats. Two more BME MSPs equals only 1.5% of the parliament's 129 MSPs and below the 4% of Scotland's population which is non-white. Humza Yousaf Hanzala Malik Humzaz Yousaf on Afghanistan

20 Local Government in Scotland 2012
There are only a few BME councillors; 17 out of 1,223 councillors, or 1.4%. Mohammed Asif, Labour, Dundee Shabbar Jaffri, SNP, Glasgow Yen Hongmei Jin, SNP, Dumfries & Galloway Shamin Akhtar, Labour, East Lothian Across Scotland's 32 councils, there are now just 17 non-white councillors taking places among the 1,223 seats available, or 1.4% of the total. None are black, of African or African-Caribbean descent. And few occupy seats outside west central Scotland. In Glasgow, which is the country's most ethnically diverse city, there are now eight Asian councillors. Six are from Labour, two SNP

21 Continued Inequality: The Glass Door
There is anecdotal evidence from research in England that employers say “my workforce wouldn’t be happy about working for a boss with a hijab” Rowena Arshad, Director, Centre for Education for Racial Equality in Scotland Many of Scotland’s minority ethnic community workers are employed in low level, poorly paid jobs. Retail and catering are two of the main sectors, often through self employment, (newsagent or grocery store) or being employed by other minority ethnic employers, e.g. working in restaurants. Some people speak, not of a glass ceiling (gender discrimination) but a “glass door” for minority ethnic men and women. If you don’t see people like you in top level jobs it may become a self fulfilling prophecy. There are also racial stereotypes, fuelled by Islamophobia, which make employers less likely to employ or promote minority ethnic candidates. Many of Scotland’s minority ethnic community workers are employed in low level, poorly paid jobs. Retail and catering are two of the main sectors, often through self employment, (newsagent or grocery store) or being employed by other minority ethnic employers, e.g. working in restaurants. According to the CRE, Scotland’s minority ethnics are 2 or 3 times more likely to be unemployed than white workers. Minority ethnic workers are under employed in most private sector organisations and in key areas such as teaching, law and social work. Why? Is it institutional racism within these organisations or is it a lack of willingness by minorities to present themselves for jobs in these areas. A CRE study, carried out between 1980 and found that white applicants for jobs were twice as likely to be accepted for an interview compared to either black Caribbean or Asian applicants. Some people speak, not of a glass ceiling (gender discrimination) but a “glass door” for minority ethnic men and women. If you don’t see people like you in top level jobs it may become a self fulfilling prophecy. There is also racial stereotypes, fuelled by Islamophobia which make employers less likely to employ or promote minority ethnic candidates.

22 Aspiration and Frustration
A 2010 survey by the charity Business in the Community, “Aspiration and Frustration”, found that despite years of Government legislation, equality of opportunity remained a long way off. It concluded that : Some of the best-paid professions such as banking, law, politics and the media were not seen as a realistic option for BMEs. Those with an historic reputation for racism, such as the police and armed forces, are still seen as unwelcoming to minorities. The ‘caring’ professions, education and medicine, which have a positive history of BME recruitment are seen as good options but are seen as less well-paid and offering less career progression, particularly education. The 2009 Race for Opportunity Report showed that BME workers make up 10.3% of the population but only 8.5% of the workforce and just 6.3% of those in management positions. Room at the top

23 2012 Race for Opportunity Findings
Race for Opportunity’s research found that: In the past 12 months 29% of BAME candidates were offered a job compared to 44% of white candidates when going through recruitment agencies In the past 12 months 57% of BAME applicants were invited to interviews through a recruitment agency, compared to 73% of white candidates In the past 12 months, when applying to directly to employer, outcomes were much more equal, with 29% BAME applicants and 29% white applicants securing jobs

24 DID TEAM GB NEW RACIAL ATTITUDES?
"It was 46 golden minutes when three young Britons showed the watching world just who we are. A ginger bloke from Milton Keynes, a mixed race beauty from Sheffield, an ethnic Somali given shelter on these shores from his war-ravaged homeland. This is what Britain looks like today." The Sun newspaper is traditionally negative in it’s attitudes towards immigration. Is it reflecting changing attitudes among the public about race? Quote, not from The Guardian, but from The Sun!

25 CAN THE POSITIVE MOOD BE MAINTAINED?
In 1998, France won the football World Cup on home soil. Their style of play was celebrated. And so was the multi-racial composition of the team. They were hailed "black-blanc-beur" (black-white-Arab). But after the tournament finished and economic problems surfaced, racial tensions returned.

26 IPSOS/MORI STATE OF THE NATION POLL, DCEMBER 2011
“Many people come to live in Britain. What effect, if any, would you say people born outside the UK who have moved to Britain have had on the following?”


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