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1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 10Race and Ethnic Relations by Vic Satzewich.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 10Race and Ethnic Relations by Vic Satzewich."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Chapter 10Race and Ethnic Relations by Vic Satzewich

2 2 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. The sociology of race and ethnic relations deals mainly with how power and resources are unequally distributed among racial and ethnic groups. Most people think of race and ethnicity as referring to unchangeable cultural or biological characteristics that people are born with. Sociologists recognize that ethnicity and race are socially defined and do change – they are “acquired” rather than “ascribed” characteristics. THE FIELD DEFINED

3 3 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited.DEFINITIONS An ethnic group may be defined objectively (by group language, culture, customs, national origin, and ancestry), or subjectively (by the self-identification of group members). The classification of humans into races is now widely regarded as arbitrary from a biological viewpoint because actual genetic differences between racial groups are trivial. However, racial groups are real in a sociological sense insofar as people with different skin colour, etc., are commonly treated differently.

4 THE ETHNICITY QUESTION IN THE 2001 CENSUS

5 5 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Racism is the disadvantageous treatment of certain groups whose members are distinguished by socially significant physical characteristics such as skin colour. Although biological versions of racism are no longer common, new racism is. It involves the belief that the races are inherently different from one another in a cultural and behavioural sense, and problems result when they try to live together. RACISM

6 6 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. TOP 25 ETHNIC ORIGINS IN CANADA

7 7 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Institutional racism refers to practices that discriminate against racial minorities and that are built into the structure of politics, economic life, education, etc. Systemic discrimination refers to laws and rules that exclude members of racial minorities without necessarily being underpinned by racist ideas. RACISM: INSTITUTIONAL AND SYSTEMIC

8 8 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. CANADIANS AND THE LIMITS TO TOLERANCE

9 9 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THEORIES OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL CONFLICT There are four main approaches to explaining conflict among ethnic and racial groups: Social-psychological theories Primordial theories Normative theories Power-conflict theories

10 10 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THEORIES OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL CONFLICT: SOCIAL- PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES Social psychological theories focus on how prejudice (an unfavourable, generalized and rigid belief about group members) and racism satisfy the psychic needs of certain people. For example, the frustration-aggression theory holds that when people are frustrated in achieving important goals they blame an ethnic or racial group. This theory does not specify the circumstances that lead to aggression or why some groups rather than others are chosen as scapegoats.

11 11 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Primordial theories focus on presumably innate differences in ethnic and racial groups as the source of group conflict. For example, sociobiology likens racial and ethnic groups to extended families that want to keep their genes within the group. A major problem with this argument is that it cannot explain intragroup conflict and intergroup harmony, both of which are common. THEORIES OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL CONFLICT: PRIMORDIAL THEORIES

12 12 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Normative theories claim that prejudice is transmitted through socialization in families, peer groups, and the mass media. While usefully emphasizing that prejudice is learned, such theories fail to explain how prejudice arises in the first place. THEORIES OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL CONFLICT: NORMATIVE THEORIES

13 13 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Power theories stress how ethnic and racial conflict derives from the distribution of power in society. For example, orthodox Marxism argues that racism is an ideology used by capitalists to mystify social reality and justify the exploitation of workers. However, racism may be found in classes other than the capitalist class. Moreover, racial conflict has at times resulted in practices that denied employers access to cheap labour. THEORIES OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL CONFLICT: POWER- CONFLICT THEORIES I

14 14 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. A second power theory is split labour market theory. Proponents agree with the orthodox Marxist view that employers try to replace high-paid with low-paid labour. They add, however, that high-paid workers perpetuate racism in the interest of protecting their jobs from low-paid members of racial minorities. THEORIES OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL CONFLICT: POWER- CONFLICT THEORIES II

15 15 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. ABORIGINAL PEOPLES Aboriginal Canadians are the most socially and economically disadvantaged people in Canada. There are three main explanations for this state of affairs: the government view; the culture of poverty thesis; and the theory of internal colonialism.

16 16 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. ABORIGINAL PEOPLES: THE GOVERNMENT VIEW Until the middle of the twentieth century, the government view was that aboriginal cultures were inferior to European cultures. Government policy reflected the belief that poverty is rooted in cultural inferiority. Canadian governments: encouraged the assimilation of aboriginal Canadians; outlawed traditional practices such as the potlatch; and separated aboriginal children from their communities and forcibly Europeanized them in residential schools.

17 17 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. ABORIGINAL PEOPLES: THE CULTURE OF POVERTY THESIS The culture of poverty thesis holds that aboriginals are poor because their culture does not value hard work, economic success, and private property. However, this argument has been criticized because it confuses effect with cause.

18 18 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. The theory of internal colonialism is the most popular type of conflict theory applied to aboriginal peoples. It argues that federal laws have disempowered aboriginal Canadians. Further, governments and white businesses have derived huge economic benefits from the control of aboriginal lands and mineral rights. This has resulted in the creation of a sort of internal colony. ABORIGINAL PEOPLES: CONFLICT THEORY

19 19 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Critics point out that gender and class privilege exists among aboriginals. Many aboriginal women are concerned about the lack of gender equality. A significant proportion of aboriginal people work in highly skilled professions, forming a distinct, virtually closed elite class. The elite controls the political agenda and neglects lower-class interests. ABORIGINAL PEOPLES: CLASS AND GENDER DIVERSITY

20 20 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. QUEBEC I Following the conquest of New France by Britain, an English elite took over the economic affairs of what is now Quebec. English economic interests dominated the society. The French controlled the traditionalist Catholic Church and composed the political elite.

21 21 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. In the middle of the twentieth century, a modernizing French-speaking elite emerged. Facing blocked mobility due to English control of economic institutions, its members pushed for an expansion and modernization of the Quebec state (the “Quiet Revolution”). Support for the contemporary sovereignty movement comes from the new middle class and organized labour, who both identify the Québécois as a colonized and exploited people. QUEBEC II

22 22 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Nearly a fifth of Quebeckers have a mother tongue other than French. Therefore, a debate has emerged over who is Québécois. Civic nationalists regard all those who reside in Quebec as Québécois. Ethnic nationalists regard only people who are French-Canadian in terms of culture, ancestry, and language as Québécois. QUEBEC III

23 23 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. In 1996, immigrants made up: 17% of Canada’s population 18% of Montreal’s population 35% of Vancouver’s population and 47% of Toronto’s population IMMIGRATION I

24 24 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Six factors explain the pattern of Canadian immigration: 1.Most immigrants are admitted to the country because they have skills needed by the Canadian economy or because they can create jobs for other Canadians. 2.Before 1962, ethnicity and race influenced who was allowed to immigrate. Non-Europeans were stereotyped as racially and culturally inferior. In 1962, these criteria became less important so by 2001 only 17% of immigrants came from Europe. IMMIGRATION II

25 25 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 3.Canada uses immigration as a way of gaining influence in world politics. 4.Humanitarianism affects immigrant selection. Canada accepts many “family class” immigrants – first-degree relatives of immigrants accepted on the basis of other criteria – and some refugees. 5.Public opinion influences immigration. Public opinion is heterogeneous on the desirability of immigraiton. 6.Security considerations affect immigration, particularly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, IMMIGRATION III

26 26 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. TOP 10 SOURCE COUNTRIES IMMIGRANTS, CANADA, 1968 AND 2001

27 27 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. In 2001: About 28,000 refugees were admitted to Canada. About 67,000 family class immigrants arrived in Canada. Economic immigrants numbered about 153,000. They included skilled workers, immigrant entrepreneurs and investors, and self-employed immigrants. CONTEMPORARY IMMIGRATION CATEGORIES

28 28 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE POINTS SYSTEM

29 29 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. THE VERTICAL MOSAIC REVISITED I In 1965, John Porter termed the stratification of ethnic and racial groups in Canada a vertical mosaic. Porter argued that the two “charter groups” – English and French – predominated in various Canadian elites. According to Porter, later arrivals faced limited upward mobility. They were caught in an ethnic mobility trap due to prejudice and discrimination, and because they lacked the cultural values and practices needed for success.

30 30 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. Canadian sociologists have debated the relevance of the vertical mosaic today. Their research shows: Upward mobility is now the norm for once- underprivileged European-origin groups. Earnings and occupational distributions of visible- minority men and women born in Canada are comparable to those of the charter and European- origin groups. The vertical mosaic exists for recent male visible- minority immigrants; they earn significantly less than one would expect given their educational levels due to discrimination. THE VERTICAL MOSAIC REVISITED II

31 31 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. EARNINGS OF AND NATIVE- BORN CANADIANS

32 32 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. SUPPLEMENTARY SLIDES

33 IMMIGRATION LEVELS HAVE FLUCTUATED BUT IMMIGRANTS HAVE REPRESENTED 15-20% OF POPULATION FOR OVER 50 YEARS

34 TODAY IMMIGRANTS ARE CONCENTRATED IN LARGE CITIES BUT HISTORICALLY SETTLEMENT PATTERNS WERE DIFFERENT

35 IMMIGRANTS INCREASINGLY FROM ASIA AND MIDDLE EAST Immigrant Population by Place of Birth Showing Period of Immigration, % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Before to to to to 1996 U.S.A. Europe Asia & Middle East Africa Caribbean, S. & C. America Other Toronto Vancouver Calgary Edmonton Montréal Ottawa-Hull Winnipeg Windsor Rest of CMA's Visible minorities as a percentage of total CMA population, 1996 % Canada 11%

36 PROJECTIONS SUGGEST GROWING VISIBLE MINORITY POPULATION AND INCREASING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

37 RECENT IMMIGRANTS ARE MORE EDUCATED THAN PAST IMMIGRANTS AND THE CANADIAN-BORN; IMMIGRANTS ARE AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF WORKERS IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS Proportion of immigrants by selected occupations, Ottawa-Hull CMA, 1996

38 DEMOGRAPHICS OF ABORIGINAL POPULATION Atlantic Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Yukon Northwest Territories Canada 2.8% Geographic Concentration, 1996Age Structure, 1996 Age Percent MaleFemale Total Canadian Population Aboriginal

39 DIFFERENCES IN LEVELS OF EDUCATION AND INCOME PERSIST FOR ABORIGINAL POPULATION % Non-AboriginalAboriginal Highest level of schooling, Persons aged 20-29, Canada Less than high school diploma Completed University Post secondary Under Incidence (%) Incidence of low income by age, Canada, 1995 Aboriginal Population Total Population

40 NEARLY HALF OF ABORIGINAL CHILDREN IN LARGE URBAN CENTRES LIVE WITH ONLY ONE PARENT; URBAN ABORIGINAL POPULATION IS HIGHLY MOBILE Total CMA's Toronto Winnipeg Regina Saskatoon Calgary Edmonton Vancouver Ottawa-Hull % All childrenAboriginal children Children 0-14 in lone parent families Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal From outside CSD (City) Within CSD (City) Did not move Population Mobility, Urban Areas, (Percent moving) %

41 IMMIGRANTS START OUT AT A DISADVANTAGE BUT EVENTUALLY CATCH UP AND SURPASS THE CANADIAN-BORN

42 NEWCOMERS TO CANADA ARE HAVING AN INCREASINGLY DIFFICULT TIME IN THE LABOUR MARKET

43 43 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. CANADIANS FEELING UNCOMFORTABLE OR OUT OF PLACE BECAUSE OF ETHNO- CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, 2002 Percent

44 44 Copyright © 2004 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. CANADIANS REPORTING DISCRIMINATION OF UNFAIR TREATMENT ‘SOMETIME’ OR ‘OFTEN’ IN PAST 5 YEARS, 2002 Percent Note: For specific groups, the ‘often’ category alone ranges from a low of about 2% for Chinese to about 10% for Blacks.


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