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Race and Ethnic Group Stratification: Beyond “We” and “They”Chapter 8 Race and Ethnic Group Stratification: Beyond “We” and “They” © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Minority groups are characterized by:Being Distinguishable from dominant group by features like appearance, language, religion Excluded or denied full participation in economic, political, and other institutions Less access to power, resources, prestige Are stereotyped, ridiculed, condemned, or defamed, which justifies poor treatment Develop collective identities, communities, and institutions to insulate themselves © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Minority groups, cont.Determined by history and ideology A group that is a minority in one time or place may be a dominant group in other times and places Dominant groups are not always the numerical majority Ethnic and racial groups are the most common minority groups © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Race and Ethnic GroupsThe concept of race Race: a group identified by society because of certain biologically inherited physical characteristics Racial classifications have been based on different combinations of characteristics © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Origins of the Concept of RaceIn the 18th and 19th century, scientists developed four major race categories Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid, Australoid In the 1970s, the United Nations issued a “Statement on Race”: All people are born free and equal Racism retards personal development (Racial) conflicts cost nations resources Racism creates international conflict © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Origins of the concept of race, cont.Race categories are defined by society, often based on what is convenient for the dominant group Racist doctrines lack any scientific basis © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups The Social Construction of RaceSymbolic Interaction Analysis The Social Construction of Race If people believe something is real, it is real in its consequences People believe race categories are real, which has real consequences: People use race categories to classify themselves and others based on physical characteristics The idea of race expanded from physical differences to psychological and moral differences The idea of psychological and moral race differences has been used to justify discriminatory treatment © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups The Significance of Race vs. ClassRace was historically central to U.S. stratification After WWII, African Americans developed a class structure based on occupation and income, similar to that of Whites The African American middle class has grown But the African American urban “underclass” has become increasingly unemployed and isolated Has race declined in significance and class become more important? Inequalities between blacks and whites remain © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Ethnic GroupsEthnic groups: membership is based on shared cultural heritage, often connected with national or geographic identity The term “ethnic” includes most minorities and avoids problems of the term “race” Some groups inhabit ethnic enclaves Ethnicity is defined in part by the government Census categories encourage diverse groups to think of themselves as parts of a larger category, or panethnicity (e.g., Asian, Hispanic) © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Race and Ethnic Groups Biracial and Multiracial Populations:Race is a social construct that can change Many countries are now multiracial due to migration The U.S. accepts more immigrants than any other country; 16% of the population is foreign born Many individuals are now multiracial In the 2000 Census, 7 million or 2.3% of the U.S. population selected two or more racial categories Yet the legacy of the “race” concept remains © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice & Racism Processes that keep minorities unequal© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice & Racism Prejudice and Discrimination Micro-Level Analysis:Prejudice: attitudes that prejudge a group, usually negative and not based on facts May be stimulated by meso- and macro-level events, but attitudes are held at the micro-level Discrimination: differential treatment and harmful actions against minorities Actions occur at micro-, meso-, and macro-levels © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice & Racism The Nature of PrejudiceResults partly from in-group loyalty and information overload Stereotyping: categorizing the personal qualities of large groups of people based on racial or ethnic features Distorted ideas are passed down through culture Ideas applied to all group members and used to justify discrimination and inequality Self-fulfilling prophesy: minorities may incorporate prejudiced views of themselves into their behavior © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice & Racism Explanations for PrejudiceFrustration-aggression theory: acts of prejudice and discrimination are carried out by individuals who cannot achieve their goals and direct their anger and frustration at vulnerable minority groups Scapegoating: a minority group is blamed and victimized for acts carried out by others, as the perpetrator cannot vent frustration on its real target or cause What these theories don’t explain: why only some people vent their frustrations on others, why particular groups become scapegoats © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice & Racism Racism: an institutional arrangement that favors one racial group over another, with intentional or unintentional consequences for minority groups Not just individual bigotry Ideological racism: justification of discrimination using pseudo-scientific ideas Symbolic racism: opposition to policy that would make real equality possible, often by people claiming not to be racist Institutional racism: discrimination hidden within meso-level systems © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Discrimination Meso-Level Analysis Discrimination: actions taken against members of a minority group Individual discrimination (micro level): action against minority members by individuals Institutional discrimination (meso level): intentional or unintentional actions by organizations and institutions that restrict minority members Discrimination and prejudice often work together and reinforce one another © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Discrimination Types of Institutional DiscriminationPurposeful (de jure) discrimination: built into the law or explicit organizational policies Unintentional (de facto) discrimination: results from policies that have unanticipated consequences favoring one group over another Side-effect discrimination: practices in one institutional area that have a negative impact due to links to other areas Past-in-present discrimination: practices from the past that may no longer be allowed today but continue to affect people anyway © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Dominant/Minority Group ContactThe form of dominant and minority group relations depend on several factors: Who has more power Dominant group needs for labor and other resources that could be provided by minorities The cultural norms of each group The social histories of the groups Physical & cultural distinctions between groups The times and circumstances © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Types of Dominant/Minority Group Relations© Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Types of Dominant/Minority Group RelationsGenocide: systematic effort by dominant group to destroy a minority group Subjugation: subordination of one group by another that holds power and authority Population transfer: removal of minority group from a region or country, often forced Assimilation: forced or chosen social and cultural merging of groups in which minority members may lose their original identity Pluralism: each group maintains its culture and institutions but has recognized equity in society © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Conflict TheoryExplaining Dominant/Minority Group Relations: Conflict Theory The dominant group protects its privileges and resources by creating a “lesser” group Factors contributing to hostility over resources If two groups are identifiably different, “we” versus “they” thinking may develop If two groups want the same scarce resources, hostilities are likely to arise If one group is more powerful, intense dislike and misrepresentation of each group by the other is likely © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Conflict Theory, cont.Explaining Dominant/Minority Group Relations: Conflict Theory, cont. Split Labor Market Theory The labor market has two levels: Primary market – “good” jobs Secondary market – “bad” jobs Minorities are more likely to work in secondary jobs Competition for secondary jobs sets minorities against each other and against low-income Whites Employers enjoy reduced threats to their dominance and profit from cheaper labor © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Structural Functional TheoryExplaining Dominant/Minority Group Relations: Structural Functional Theory Minority groups often serve as pools of cheap, marginally employed labor, and this has several functions for society: Provide a labor force to do “dirty work” Make possible occupations which service the poor Buy goods others do not want Set examples for others of what not to be Allow others to feel good about giving to charity © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Macro-Level Analysis Cultural ExplanationsExplaining Dominant/Minority Group Relations: Cultural Explanations Prejudice and discrimination are passed on from generation to generation through cultural transmission Socialization, macro-level structures, and media stereotypes all contribute to transmission Cultural stereotypes do not generate inequality by themselves, but they do stabilize it © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice, Racism & Discrimination: EffectsCosts of Racism Individual Effects Poverty, ill-health, lack of property, enslavement, war Low self-esteem, poor self-concept Organizations and communities Loss of talents of excluded individuals Cost of government subsidies necessitated by lack of opportunities Cultural costs Loss of contributions to cultural production © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice, Racism & Discrimination: EffectsMinority reactions to prejudice, discrimination, and racism: Individual reactions Assimilation and Passing Acceptance Avoidance Aggression (indirect, displaced) Meso- to macro-level reactions Change-oriented Action © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Prejudice, Racism & Discrimination: EffectsMeso- to macro-level reactions to discrimination: Nonviolent Resistance Attempts to bring about change at the institutional and societal levels Model comes from India’s Mahatma Gandhi and has been followed in the U.S. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and others © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Policy Policies to reduce prejudice, racism, and discriminationIndividual or small group solutions: educational workshops, group encounters, therapy Group contact: integrated housing, employment, and education; especially successful when groups must cooperate to achieve a goal Institutional & societal strategies: lobbying, legislation, watchdog monitoring, information dissemination, social protest © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Policy Policies to reduce discrimination, cont.Affirmative Action legislation: three policies intended to fight institutional racism Strict affirmative action: affirmative or positive steps to prevent unintended discrimination Quota systems: require employers to hire a certain percentage of minorities Preference policies: based on the belief that due to institutional discrimination, sometimes people must be treated differently in order to be treated fairly © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
Policy Global movement for human rightsGlobal issues and ethnic conflicts are interrelated The United Nations passed the Declaration of Universal Human Rights after the Holocaust to ensure the rights of all, regardless of nation National governments and privately funded groups advocate for international human rights that transcend national boundaries © Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc., 2011.
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