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TENSIONS OF STEREOTYPES AS POLITICS JASDEV SINGH RAI.

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Presentation on theme: "TENSIONS OF STEREOTYPES AS POLITICS JASDEV SINGH RAI."— Presentation transcript:

1 TENSIONS OF STEREOTYPES AS POLITICS JASDEV SINGH RAI

2 BEING SMART A new history of stereotyping (Unknown Binding) by George A Kubler (Author)George A Kubler No customer reviews yet. Be the first.Be the first.

3 SPECTRUM PREVALENT IN SOME CULTURES MORE THAN OTHERS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH MODERNITY RACE NATION CIVILISATION IDEOLOGY, RELIGION PHILOSOPHY

4 RACE UNESCO – RACE IS UNSCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF RACE TREMENDOUS INFLUENCE IN LAST 3 CENTURIES Kant’’s ideas on race Justified colonialism as moral ‘In the hot countries the human being matures in all aspects earlier, but does not, however, reach the perfection of those in the temperate zones. Humanity is at its greatest perfection in the race of the whites. The yellow Indians do have a meagre talent. The Negroes are far below them and at the lowest point are a part of the American peoples.’ PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

5 ANTI RACISM Anti racism drive significantly successful Anti racism - negative, locked in a colonial battle Diversity as a positive conceptual basis

6 DIVERSITY subliminal level anti racism satisfies a sense of superiority with implicit power relation Anti racism mostly white – non white issue Others keep their discriminations out, i.e. Caste. ANTI-RACISM: THE NON WHITES PLEADING TO WHITES FOR EQUALITY AND FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION. subtle dynamics of stereotyping between whites and non whites article on diversity in World Con against Racism White problem coping with diversity. Resistance by American Africans, Afro-Caribbean in UK and European states. Russia introduced it. stereotype: Sikhs seek equality Sikhs don’t care. Wont play the victim

7 NATION Stereotype of nation as Westphalia secular Nation-State system. Associated with territory. In India Congress and BJP both trying to conflate state with nation

8 NON TERRITORIAL NATION QAUM SIKHS Emerged as a nation across state boundaries Not dependent on territory Gurdwara: territorial unit Flag Language Political organisation Institutions Identity Coexist with others A benign nation when not threatened with assimilation

9 NEGOTIATING COEXISTENCE SIKHS 1920s Very powerful peace movement in Punjab 1929 negotiated agreement 1. safeguard for minorities 2. Strong federal structure 3. veto on constitution Not comfortable with Secularisation of public Domain. Seen as inconsistent with Indian civilisation INDIA 1947 centralising constitution No minority safeguard Continually attempting to conjure a nation called India and Indian Obsessed with secularity

10 CONFLICT OF MISUNDERSTANDINGS 1955 India redrew boundaries based on language. Sikh dominated Punjab not considered 17 major languages, many dialects. Sikhs accused State of malice, attempting to destroy Sikhs State accused Sikhs of secessionist designs 1976 emergency, suspension of democracy in India Sikhs democratic : resisted detained State concerned about the collective power of Sikhs, sought to fragment it Sikhs reinstated autonomy issue : strong federalism State accused Sikhs of being separatists Tragic attack in 1984 of Golden Temple reaction: violent retaliation. No positive articulated demand for Sikh state, State categorised Sikhs as demanding a state and threatening territorial integrity

11 TENSION OF STEREOTYPES SIKHS BLAME BRAHMIN COSNPIRACY AND SECULARITY OF STATE. SIKHS: NON DUALITY INDIA BLAMES EXTERNAL AGENCIES OF USING SIKHS AND RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM No political attempt at accommodating the distinct nations and regions as autonomous entities No understanding how to negotiate through stereotypes No comprehension how to draw from indigenous cultural and political traditions question: why this dysfunctional approach? Does Indian civilisation have a problem? Or has a problem infested Indian civilisation?

12 CIVILISATION WESTERN - SOUTH ASIAN GREECE - INDIA GREECE SOCRATES, PLATO ARISTOTLE, ARCHIMEDESE ETC ASSOCIATED WITH PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE, MEDICINE, ARCHITECTURE ETC THE FOUNDATION OF WESTERN CIVILISATION AND IN FACT ALL USEFUL CIVILISATION

13 commonly greece not associated with MYSTICISM ODD BELIEFS SACRIFICES MYTHOLOGICAL BELIEFS TREATING WOMEN INFERIORLY PERSECUTION OF INTELLECTUALS

14 INDIAN CIVILISATION associated with GODS KRISHNA EPICS MAHABHARATA RAMAYANA MYSTICISM BUDDHA CASTE

15 Indian civilisation not associated with CHEMISTRY ARCHITECTURE, TOWN PLANNING MATHEMATICS, ALGEBRA, TRIGNOMETRY, ASTRONOMY MEDICINE, THEORY OF LOGIC, THEORY OF POLITICS METALLURGY FEW PEOPLE KNOW PANINI: DEVISED SANSKRIT GRAMMER ARUABHATA: MATHEMATICIAN SUSHRUTA: SURGEON, SUSHRUTA SAMHITA 120 SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS 300 SURGICAL OPERATIONS KANADA: WHO WENT INTO THEORIES OF PARMANU ANU MEANING ATOM PARMA MEANING BEYOND

16 THE McCAULEY LEGACY ‘I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The intrinsic superiority of the Western literature is, indeed, fully admitted by those members of the Committee who support the Oriental plan of education’. ‘We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect.’ FEBRUARY 1835 ENGLISH INDIAN SIKH

17 SUSTAINING STEREOTYPES THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF INDIAN CIVILISATION IS IN RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL CONTEXT WHICH IS IRRELEVANT TO TEMPORAL HUMAN PROGRESS THAT OF GREECE IS IN RATIONAL AND UTILITARIAN TERMS WITH GREAT SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMAN PROGRESS AND AS CRADDLE OF CIVILISATION

18 I AM SUPPOSED TO BE RELIGIOUS BELONGING TO THE SIKH RELIGION BELIEVING IN GOD HAVE SOME RITUALS HAVE LITTLE FREEDOM OF INTELLECT THERE ARE ASSUMPTIONS THAT I MAY BE AGAINST ATHEISTS COULD BE A FUNDAMENTALIST AM ORTHODOX AGAINST GAYS TREAT WOMEN AS INFERIOR AND PERHAPS BE SENSITIVE TO RELIGIOUS OFFENCE MY PRACTICES ARE NOT MODERN AM INTERESTING AND ORIENT. WITHIN THESE STEREOTYPE PARADIGMS IS CONTAINED THE DISTORTION OF THE VERY UNDERSTANDING OF SOUTH ASIAN PHILOSOPHIES, SYSTEMS OF KNOWLEDGE AND INDIVIDUALS

19 sikhi as I see it FROM THE GURU GRANTH SAHIB MULTIPLE UNIVERSES UNIVERSES COLLAPSE AND NEW ONES FORM LIFE ENDS AND NEW CYCLES BEGIN TIME IS SUBJECTIVE AND NOT LINEAR EVERYTHING AND ALL LIFE IS INTERCONNECTED AND INTERDEPENDENT NO EVIL OR GOOD FORCE NO SUCH ENTITY CALLED GOD COMPREHEND THE TOTALITY OF THAT WHICH IS MANIFEST AND WHICH IS NOT AS ONE: NO OTHER TEN DIMENSIONS MY PRACTICES HAIR AS A COMMITMENT TO NATURE, KARA A PERSISTENT REMINDER OF THE CYCLICAL NATURE OF REALITY TURBAN A STATEMENT FOR DIVERSITY AND FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE KIRPAN SOVEREIGNTY OF INDIVIDUAL CONSCIENCE DIAMETRICALLY OPPOSITE OF WESTERN STATE SYSTEM A SIKH CEDES SOVEREIGNTY BY WILL WESTERN SOVEREIGN STATE GRANTS RIGHTS

20 europe and sikhs FRANCE LAICITE QUESTION: TURBAN BANNING WHAT IS THE RATIONALE AND FOR WHAT PURPOSE? FREE THE INDIVIDUAL FROM RELIGIOUS RESTRICTIONS FREE WOMEN FROM SUBJUGATION PROTECT FRENCH CHILDREN FROM BEING EXPOSED TO RELIGION ASSERT NEUTRALITY OF STATE AS SECULAR EQUALITY OF ALL BY MAKING EVERONE SIMILAR OUR ARGUMENTS 95% TURBAN WEARING SIKHS ARE NOT INITIATED (OR BAPTISED) HOW DOES THAT MAKE THEM RELIGIOUS HAIR A COMMITMENT TO NATURAL FORM WHY IS STATE FORCING VIOLATION OF NATURE? TURBAN, FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE, WHY IS STATE FORCING ONLY ONE WAY OF LOOKING AT THIS SIKHI STANDS FOR PLURALITY WHY IS STATE FORCING CONFORMITY

21 THE IRRATIONAL AGE OF REASON NO RATIONAL ARGUMENTS BUT ONLY DEFENCE: THIS IS THE FRENCH WAY AGREED. SIKHS FROM AMERICA CONFUSED ISSUE OUR QUESTION: WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FRENCH SECULARISM AND ANY ABRAHAMIC RELIGION? EACH STEREOTYPES THE OTHER AS IRRATIONAL

22 SUPPOSEDLY I AM Occasional victim of racism and seek equality Am supporting a Sikh state by working in human rights Am part of a civilisation obsessed with afterlife and needs modernising Am religious and wear religious symbols NONE OF THE ABOVE Being understood through prisms of stereotypes but I don’t care STEREOTYPING CONTINUOSLY CHALLANGED

23 STEREOTYPING STEREOTYPE Stereotyping printing 1940 A new history of stereotyping Published 1940 A book on printing

24 THE END


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