A FEAR OF STRANGERS Prof. Dr Zorica Mršević Deputy Ombudsman of Serbia
A fear of strangers Fear of or aversion to Persons from other countries Other cultures, subcultures and subsets of belief systems
In short: Anyone who meets any list of criteria about their: –origin –religion –personal beliefs –habits –language –orientations, or –any other criteria
Xenophobia consists of two parts: Xeno (a combining form meaning "guest, stranger, person that looks different, foreigner") and Phobia ("fear, horror or aversion, especially if morbid").[[
“ Target" group is a set of persons Not accepted by the society Only the phobic person need hold the belief that the target group is not (or should not be) accepted by society
Phobic person Is aware of the aversion (even hatred) of the target group They may not identify it or accept it as a fear
Xenophobia is similar to: Racism Prejudice Discrimination
Racism 1 is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
In the case of institutional racism Certain racial groups may be denied rights or benefits, or get preferential treatment while reverse racism favors members of a historically disadvantaged group at the expense of those of a historically advantaged group.
Racism 2 Racial discrimination typically points out taxonomic differences between different groups of people, Even though anybody can be racialised, independently of their somatic differences.
According to the UN conventions: there is no distinction between the term racial discrimination and ethnic discrimination.
A prejudice Is an implicitly held belief, often about a group of people. Race, economic class, gender or sex, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age and religion are other common subjects of prejudice.
Prejudices are abstract-general preconceptions or abstract-general attitudes Towards any type of situation object or person.
Tree types Cognitive Prejudice refers to what people believe to be true Affective Prejudice refers to what people like and dislike: for example, in attitudes toward members of particular clasess such as race, ethnicity, national origin, or creed. Conative Prejudice refers to how people are inclined to behave.
Examples Someone may believe that a particular group possesses low levels of intelligence, but harbour no ill feeling towards that group. A group may be disliked because of intense competition for jobs, but still recognise no differences between groups.
Traditional psychologists described prejudice a result of frustration
Personality approach Classical explanation on prejudice concerns the personalities which create tendency on prejudice against minorities. Psychologists suggested various personalities contributing to discrimination, including authoritariarism, dogmatism, closed-mindedness, dominant orientation, etc
People having these personalities refuse to accept belief-contradicting information thus remain their stereotype on the prejudiced group.
Intergroup approach Social psychologists explain prejudice as the effect of group interaction. When we are identified with a group, we show some general characteristics including:
Ethnocentrism, ingroup favoritism, intergroup differentiation and so on, which contribute to prejudice.
Learning theories provide a way of understanding how behaviour develops and propagates among generations
Parents/child Although, empirical results often showed significant correlation between parents’ and child’s attitude, The correlation is typically low especially after the child grew up. Learning theory can only explain part of the reason behind prejudice.
Learning theorists suggest that prejudice is learned from others and therefore Are unable to explain how prejudice emerges from the very beginning.
Subjective uncertainty reduction theory people are motivated to reduce subjective uncertainty by identifying with social groups
Discrimination Treatment taken toward or against a person of a certain group that is taken in consideration based on class or category. The UN explains: "Discriminatory behaviours take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection."
Types of discrimination INDIVIDUAL INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURAL
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN UN CEDAW
Article I For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex
which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.
Racial discrimination Racial discrimination differentiates between individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial differences. It has been official government policy in several countries, such as South Africa in the apartheid era, and the USA.
Sociological definition of racism Racism is a system of group privilege. “Culturally sanctioned beliefs, which, regardless of intentions involved, Defend the advantages whites have because of the subordinated position of racial minorities
Xenophobia there are two main objects of the phobia
The first object Is a population group present within a society that is not considered part of that society. Often they are recent immigrants
BUT: Xenophobia may be directed against a group which has been present for centuries or Became part of this society through conquest and territorial expansion.
This form of xenophobia can elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions, such as mass expulsion of immigrants, pogroms or in the worst case, genocide.
The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural The objects of the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien.
Cultural xenophobia Is often narrowly directed At foreign loan words in a national language. It rarely leads to aggression against individual persons.
Can Result In Political campaigns for cultural or linguistic purification. Isolationism is a general aversion of foreign affairs, is not accurately described as xenophobia.
Cultural xenophobia It can be used to characterize beliefs about other things as well, Including "any unreasonable attitude that is unusually resistant to rational influence
Xenophily or xenophilia means an affection for unknown objects or human beings. It is the opposite of xenophobia or xenophoby.
In common usage it means An attraction to foreign peoples, cultures, or customs. For example, A person may date someone of another race not because they like them as people but specifically because they are different.
Xenophilia Xenophilia is a theme found in science fiction In which one explores the consequences of love and sexual intercourse Between humans and non-humans, including extraterrestrials.
In the book Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, a character named Xenophilius Lovegood (the father of one of Harry Potter's more eccentric friends, Luna Lovegood) Is characterized by his interest in unusual or unknown objects, animals, and concepts.
George Washington, in his 1796 Farewell Address described the influence xenophily in politics, which he saw as negative
A passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils.
Sympathy for the favorite nation Facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest In cases where no real common interest exists, and Infusing into one the enmities of the other Betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter Without adequate inducement or justification.
It leads also To concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions. A disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld.
It gives to Ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation) Facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, sometimes even with popularity