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Prejudice and Stereotyping. Important Definitions Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Prejudice and Racism Ethnic and Other Prejudices Allport (1954) Discrimination.

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Presentation on theme: "Prejudice and Stereotyping. Important Definitions Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Prejudice and Racism Ethnic and Other Prejudices Allport (1954) Discrimination."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prejudice and Stereotyping

2 Important Definitions Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Prejudice and Racism Ethnic and Other Prejudices Allport (1954) Discrimination Clark & Clark, 1953; Beuf, 1977

3 Ethnocentrism (Wade and Tavris, 1999) The belief that one’s own cultural or ethnic group is superior to all others Examples: Chinese word for China = Center of the World Navajo term for selves = “The People” Manifested in beliefs that 1 sex, ethnicity, religion, school, community, country, SES, etc. is better than another

4 Stereotypes (Wade and Tavris 2000) Definition: summary impression of a group of people in which a person believes that all members of a group share a common trait or traits Distortions Created by Stereotypes Accentuation of group differences Production of selective perception Underestimation of within group differences

5 Prejudice & Racism “Prejudice and racism describe ways in which people devalue, disadvantage, demean, and in general, unfairly treat others.” (In Prejudice and Racism; Jones, 1997)

6 Ethnic Prejudice “Ethnic prejudice is an antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization. It may be felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because he is a member of that group.” (In The Nature of Prejudice; Allport 1954)

7 Allport Revisited Two important elements in his definition of prejudice: Prejudice is a negative attitude Prejudice puts the object of prejudice at an unjust disadvantage (i.e., prejudice is negative, unjust, and a source of disadvantage for its targets) Note: Prejudice is not just about ethnicity e.g. sexism, homophobia, ableism, religionism, classism, geographicism, adultism, etc.

8 Sources of Prejudice Socialization: passed from caregivers to children Social Benefits: often brings support from others who share the same prejudice that may result in loss of support if not maintained Economic Benefits & Justification of Discrimination: arises when people are in direct competition for jobs

9 Discrimination “Discrimination consists of negative behavior toward a person based on negative attitudes one holds toward the group to which the person belongs, or, positive behavior toward a person based on positive attributes one holds toward the group to which that person belongs.” (In Prejudice and Racism; Jones, 1997)

10 Social Consequences of Prejudice and Discrimination 1944 Clark, M. Changes in primary mental abilities with age 1946 The Northside Child Development Center in Harlem Clark & Clark, 1953 Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka 1977 Beuf, A. Biting Off the Bracelet: Red Children in White America Beauty is the Beast

11 Reducing Prejudice Education, self-esteem, and religious/spiritual conversion (prob. w/ Dutch Reform Church & Apartheid) Contact hypothesis (prob. w/cliques) Law (Title IX, Affirmative Action, Prop. 187, English Only) Working toward a common goal

12 Effective Strategies for Reducing Prejudice & Conflict Both sides must cooperate for a common goal Both sides must have equal status & standing Both sides must believe they have the moral, legal, and economic support of authorities Both sides must have opportunities to work and socialize together formally & informally ( Amir, 1994; Brewer, 1986; Kohn, 1992; Stephan & Brigham, 1985; Stephan & Stephan, 1992)


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