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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter 8 - 0 SECTION 3 Contemporary.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter 8 - 0 SECTION 3 Contemporary."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter SECTION 3 Contemporary Dilemmas for Intergroup Relations

2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Confronting a Legacy of White Domination of America Section 3 Chapter 8 Understanding Human Differences Multicultural Education for a Diverse America 3rd Edition By Kent L. Koppelman This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a networkAny public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any imagesPreparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease, or lending of the programAny rental, lease, or lending of the program

3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Cultural Racism The practice of recognizing activities and contributions of one racial group in preference to others within a multiracial society FOR EXAMPLE: Educators may present an ETHNOCENTRIC view of U.S. history and culture to racially diverse students

4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How is RACISM taught to children and youth in our schools Presenting African slaves as primitive, unsophisticated peoplePresenting African slaves as primitive, unsophisticated people Lack of information on Spanish settlements that preceded English settlements in the U.S.Lack of information on Spanish settlements that preceded English settlements in the U.S. Omitting information regarding English settlers that is not complimentary (e.g., digging up Indian graves for food)Omitting information regarding English settlers that is not complimentary (e.g., digging up Indian graves for food) Some Examples:

5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How does society reinforce the cultural racism taught in school Rightness of Whiteness: Rightness of Whiteness: Children learn to regard white Americans as the norm through predominance of white images in books, television, movies, etc. White Privilege: White Privilege: A set of options, opportunities, and opinions that white people have and maintain at the expense of people of color. Source: Akbar, 2003

6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What DENIAL RATIONALIZATIONS justify individual racism Denial of ongoing segregation and discrimination based on believing that affirmative action programs and Brown v. Board of Education have eliminated segregated schools

7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What VICTIM-BLAMING RATIONALIZATIONS justify individual racism 56% thought blacks were more likely to be lazy56% thought blacks were more likely to be lazy 35% thought blacks were less intelligent35% thought blacks were less intelligent 79% thought blacks were more likely to be violent79% thought blacks were more likely to be violent Source: National Opinion Research Center A 1998 U.S. survey revealed white prejudices toward blacks:

8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What AVOIDANCE RATIONALIZATIONS justify individual racism AVOIDANCE RATIONALIZATIONS may propose partial or false solutions to racial problems or rely on arguments that distract attention from problems caused by racism

9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Some Examples of AVOIDANCE RATIONALIZATIONS: “If we didn’t talk so much about racism it would diminish” (false solution) “Racism would disappear if children were taught more about other racial groups in school” (partial solution) “There are more middle class black families” (almost 50% of black families still live in poverty) (distracts attention)

10 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Institutional Racism Established laws, customs, and practices that systematically reflect and produce racial inequities in a society. Source: Jones, J. (1997). Prejudice and Racism (2 nd ed.). New York; McGraw Hill.

11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How is INSTITUTIONAL RACISM reflected in statistics on EMPLOYMENT Unemployment is higher for blacks than for whites one year after high school graduation regardless of whether the school was rural, urban or suburban. Jobless rates for working-age black males in urban areas are consistently higher than for white males

12 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Jobless Rates for Working-Age Males Source: Center for Economic Development, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (2008) BlackWhiteDisparity Milwaukee Buffalo Detroit St. Louis Chicago

13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How does INSTITUTIONAL RACISM influence HIRING decisions Word-of-mouth HIRING (based on recommendations by current employees) favors white applicants if the majority of employees are white The LOCATION of a company or factory in an all-white suburb favors white applicants

14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How has INSTITUTIONAL RACISM influenced the development of SEGREGATED neighborhoods Realtors often engage in STEERING (showing clients homes in neighborhoods where residents are primarily the same race as the client) Studies show that it is more difficult for families of color to get HOME LOANS than white families even when incomes are similar

15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Mortgage Crisis People of color who qualified for conventional loans were given sub prime loans Three times more families of color had sub prime mortgages than white families (twice as many defaulted) African American families lost $72-$93 billion

16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How does INSTITUTIONAL RACISM occur in SCHOOLS Schools continue to be segregated by race and class often resulting in FEWER RESOURCES and POOR FACILITIES for racial minority students TRACKING practices which group students by ability tend to have few students of color in ACCELERATED classes and many in REMEDIAL classes

17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How does INSTITUTIONAL RACISM affect politics LARGE DONORS are essential for FUND RAISING, but they often believe that candidates of color are less likely to win if most voters are white Electing AT-LARGE CANDIDATES (representing an entire community) when there are some predominantly minority neighborhoods makes it more difficult for candidates of color to be elected

18 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What was unique about the 2008 Presidential Primary Top Democratic candidates included a woman, a Latino, and an African American Barack Obama raised more than $350 million from 3.1 million people via the Internet, avoiding the large donor problem

19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do advocates and critics assess the effectiveness of AFFIRMATIVE ACTION programs

20 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Advocates: Increased numbers of people of color in higher paying jobsIncreased numbers of people of color in higher paying jobs Increased numbers of people of color in high status professionsIncreased numbers of people of color in high status professionsCritics: claim racial quotas create reverse discriminationclaim racial quotas create reverse discrimination call for an end to affirmative actioncall for an end to affirmative actionCourts: have consistently struck down racial quotashave consistently struck down racial quotas

21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What remedies have been proposed to address INSTUTIONAL RACISM

22 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Ongoing RESEARCH related to institutional racismOngoing RESEARCH related to institutional racism National AGENCY to handle anti- discrimination complaintsNational AGENCY to handle anti- discrimination complaints Increased RESOURCES for inner citiesIncreased RESOURCES for inner cities Active monitoring of REAL ESTATE practicesActive monitoring of REAL ESTATE practices Increased FUNDING to segregated schools serving primarily students of colorIncreased FUNDING to segregated schools serving primarily students of color Better preparation of TEACHERS to work effectively with racially diverse studentsBetter preparation of TEACHERS to work effectively with racially diverse students


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