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Stereotype “The idea that ‘all’ members of a group are the same, rather that individuals with differing abilities, personalities and values.” “The idea.

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Presentation on theme: "Stereotype “The idea that ‘all’ members of a group are the same, rather that individuals with differing abilities, personalities and values.” “The idea."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Stereotype “The idea that ‘all’ members of a group are the same, rather that individuals with differing abilities, personalities and values.” “The idea that ‘all’ members of a group are the same, rather that individuals with differing abilities, personalities and values.” Scottish people are stingy. Scottish people are stingy. Teenagers are loud and obnoxious. Teenagers are loud and obnoxious. Koreans are good at math. Koreans are good at math. White men can’t jump. White men can’t jump. Blondes are dumb. Blondes are dumb.

3 Prejudice From the words “Pre” and “Judge”. From the words “Pre” and “Judge”. In other words, “to have an opinion or image based on previously held ideas rather than knowledge or experience”. In other words, “to have an opinion or image based on previously held ideas rather than knowledge or experience”. It is when you agree with the stereotypes. It is when you agree with the stereotypes.

4 Discriminate “To treat a particular group, or member of a particular group differently or unfairly.” It is based on prejudices. “To treat a particular group, or member of a particular group differently or unfairly.” It is based on prejudices. For centuries women have been stereotypically viewed as being less intelligent, or incapable of doing things such as say math or science. They were to be “barefoot and pregnant in the kitchen”. This prejudicial attitude led to discrimination when it came to women of ability being allowed to hold down traditional male jobs that required math/science. And if they did get the job, women were paid less for doing the same job. For centuries women have been stereotypically viewed as being less intelligent, or incapable of doing things such as say math or science. They were to be “barefoot and pregnant in the kitchen”. This prejudicial attitude led to discrimination when it came to women of ability being allowed to hold down traditional male jobs that required math/science. And if they did get the job, women were paid less for doing the same job.

5 Racism “The mistreatment of people on the basis of race, place of origin, or ancestry; belief that one group of people is inferior or superior to another.” “The mistreatment of people on the basis of race, place of origin, or ancestry; belief that one group of people is inferior or superior to another.” Racism is any action based on stereotypes that view all members of a racial, ethnic or cultural group as being the same, rather than individuals. Racism is any action based on stereotypes that view all members of a racial, ethnic or cultural group as being the same, rather than individuals.

6 Racism and Prejudice in Canada

7 Do you think racism is a serious problem in Canadian society?

8 Historical Examples of Racism in Canada The Native Experience The Native Experience The African Experience The African Experience The Chinese Experience The Chinese Experience

9 The Native Experience Native Canadians are the only non-immigrants in Canada but are treated as though they are. Native Canadians are the only non-immigrants in Canada but are treated as though they are. Europeans imposed their rules and regulations onto the natives. Europeans imposed their rules and regulations onto the natives. Created Acts which controlled and restricted the Native’s freedom to serve the government’s interests Created Acts which controlled and restricted the Native’s freedom to serve the government’s interests

10 Gradual Civilization Act 1857 Purpose was to make natives English-speaking, Christian and farmers. Purpose was to make natives English-speaking, Christian and farmers. Cultural Immersion, so kids removed from homes and rewarded those deemed successful. Cultural Immersion, so kids removed from homes and rewarded those deemed successful. Given 50 acres of farm land and tribal and treaty rights removed to be more like the white man (enfranchised), which was considered the school’s ultimate goal. Given 50 acres of farm land and tribal and treaty rights removed to be more like the white man (enfranchised), which was considered the school’s ultimate goal. Is this Cultural Genocide? Ethnocentrism? Is this Cultural Genocide? Ethnocentrism?

11 The Indian Act (1876) The Canadian government created a form of racism that was designed to promote, primarily through school and church, forced ‘assimilation’ (to make everyone feel they are the same or are part of, to make similar). In short, make the natives more European. The Canadian government created a form of racism that was designed to promote, primarily through school and church, forced ‘assimilation’ (to make everyone feel they are the same or are part of, to make similar). In short, make the natives more European. Native social and political institutions were systematically destroyed Native social and political institutions were systematically destroyed

12 The Native Experience The Indian Act (1876) The Indian Act (1876) - a mandate for government administrators to control the lives of Natives - They could not manage their own reserve lands or money and were under the supervision of the government - could not own their land - must ask for permission to develop on the land - Natives did not have the power to decide whether non- natives could reside on their land - cannot leave the reserve without permission from a government agent

13 “I want to get rid of the Indian problem. I do not think as a matter of fact, that the country ought to continuously protect a class of people who are able to stand alone… Our objective is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic and there is no Indian question, and no Indian Department, that is the whole object of this Bill.” Dr. Duncan Campbell Scott – 1920 “I want to get rid of the Indian problem. I do not think as a matter of fact, that the country ought to continuously protect a class of people who are able to stand alone… Our objective is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic and there is no Indian question, and no Indian Department, that is the whole object of this Bill.” Dr. Duncan Campbell Scott – 1920 Scott was the head of the Department of Indian Affairs from 1913 to Scott was the head of the Department of Indian Affairs from 1913 to Even before Confederation, the Canadian government adopted a policy of assimilation. The long term goal was to bring the Native peoples from their ‘savage and unproductive state’ and force (English style) civilization upon them. Even before Confederation, the Canadian government adopted a policy of assimilation. The long term goal was to bring the Native peoples from their ‘savage and unproductive state’ and force (English style) civilization upon them. all native children between the ages of seven and fifteen must attend one of Canada's Residential Schools. all native children between the ages of seven and fifteen must attend one of Canada's Residential Schools.

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15 “Idle No More” Movement Is a reaction to many of the mistreatments and injustices that our native people feel they face. Is a reaction to many of the mistreatments and injustices that our native people feel they face. It is not a cohesive movement at the moment, but a “groundswell” action that may result in some changes by the Harper government. It is not a cohesive movement at the moment, but a “groundswell” action that may result in some changes by the Harper government.

16 The African Experience “White” culture, intellect and morality was thought to be much more superior over the black race. “White” culture, intellect and morality was thought to be much more superior over the black race. Many arrived in Canada via the underground railroad; settled in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario. Many arrived in Canada via the underground railroad; settled in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario. When “free” blacks came to Canada, they were promised equal land and necessities by the British but received none or very little. When “free” blacks came to Canada, they were promised equal land and necessities by the British but received none or very little.

17 The African Experience In 1850, black Canadians experienced restricted land ownership and were refused equal education; not allowed in “white” schools In 1850, black Canadians experienced restricted land ownership and were refused equal education; not allowed in “white” schools Segregated schools existed in Nova Scotia until the 1960’s. Segregated schools existed in Nova Scotia until the 1960’s. Black Canadians forced to settle in segregated communities in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario Black Canadians forced to settle in segregated communities in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario Africville, NS Africville, NS

18 Africville, NS Part of the City of Halifax, isolated from the rest of the city Part of the City of Halifax, isolated from the rest of the city Population of about 400 black Canadians; coming from 80 different families Population of about 400 black Canadians; coming from 80 different families Were law-abiding, tax paying citizens who were proud of their community Were law-abiding, tax paying citizens who were proud of their community Africville area soon became home to many dirty industries; a prison, disposal pits, a city dump and an infectious disease hospital Africville area soon became home to many dirty industries; a prison, disposal pits, a city dump and an infectious disease hospital The city failed to install sewers, lights, water or roads The city failed to install sewers, lights, water or roads

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22 Africville, NS In 1947, Halifax designated Africville industrial land. In 1947, Halifax designated Africville industrial land. Without consultation with the members of the community, between Africville residents were given $500 and relocated to public housing, some via city dump trucks, and the houses were leveled. Without consultation with the members of the community, between Africville residents were given $500 and relocated to public housing, some via city dump trucks, and the houses were leveled. It is fair to state that while this tight knit community paid taxes they were treated unfairly due to their race. It is fair to state that while this tight knit community paid taxes they were treated unfairly due to their race.

23 Africville BEFORE BEFORE AFTER AFTER The town of Africville, 1965 Africville Monument, 2000

24 Canada’s Early Bias – “Keeping Canada White and Christian” In general, Canada in the first half of 1900s was very selective about who they let in, despite the fact they needed more people to work in agriculture In general, Canada in the first half of 1900s was very selective about who they let in, despite the fact they needed more people to work in agriculture If they couldn’t get Brits or Western Europeans, they preferred farmers from Eastern Europe. If they couldn’t get Brits or Western Europeans, they preferred farmers from Eastern Europe. There were exclusion laws tried to keep out Chinese, Japanese, Indians (India). These are countries with huge native populations. There were exclusion laws tried to keep out Chinese, Japanese, Indians (India). These are countries with huge native populations.

25 The Chinese Experience Arrived in British Columbia in the 1850’s Arrived in British Columbia in the 1850’s Recruited to build the Canadian Pacific Railway Recruited to build the Canadian Pacific Railway Were given the hardest and most dangerous jobs; more Chinese victims than white Were given the hardest and most dangerous jobs; more Chinese victims than white Were paid ¼ to ½ less than whites Were paid ¼ to ½ less than whites Anti-Chinese Bill in 1885 to limit Chinese immigration (railway was built) Anti-Chinese Bill in 1885 to limit Chinese immigration (railway was built) In the USA it was even illegal for a white to marry a Chinese person (changed in the 1940s). In the USA it was even illegal for a white to marry a Chinese person (changed in the 1940s).

26 Chinese Experience con’t Chinese “Head Tax” of $50 per person, in 1900 $100, and 1903 to $500 (two years wages). Chinese “Head Tax” of $50 per person, in 1900 $100, and 1903 to $500 (two years wages). Too expensive to bring family, so usually males came and sent money back to support family. Created a “bachelor society” for Chinese in Canada Too expensive to bring family, so usually males came and sent money back to support family. Created a “bachelor society” for Chinese in Canada 1923 Canada passes the Chinese Exclusion Act and in the next 14 years only 50 Chinese immigrants were permitted to enter Canada passes the Chinese Exclusion Act and in the next 14 years only 50 Chinese immigrants were permitted to enter.

27 These Experiences… Provide a backdrop to help illustrate the different forms of racism found in our society today…. Provide a backdrop to help illustrate the different forms of racism found in our society today….

28 3 Forms of Racism Cultural – “Ethnocentric” Cultural – “Ethnocentric” Institutional Institutional Individual Individual

29 Cultural Racism Ethnocentric – belief that one’s culture and beliefs are better than others. Ethnocentric – belief that one’s culture and beliefs are better than others. “we” and “they” mentality where one’s own racial group is considered to be better than other groups “we” and “they” mentality where one’s own racial group is considered to be better than other groups When the Europeans encountered Native North Americans it was inconceivable to them that natives were their equals. As well, it was believed that non- Europeans would want to be like them…superior. When the Europeans encountered Native North Americans it was inconceivable to them that natives were their equals. As well, it was believed that non- Europeans would want to be like them…superior.

30 Institutional Racism The process by which organizational practices and procedures are used to either directly or indirectly discriminate against “others” The process by which organizational practices and procedures are used to either directly or indirectly discriminate against “others” Rules, procedures, rewards and practices that have the intent or effect of excluding “others” Rules, procedures, rewards and practices that have the intent or effect of excluding “others” Examples include: differential admission policy of Jewish students at McGill, black individuals were regularly excluded from entry into theatres and restaurants. Examples include: differential admission policy of Jewish students at McGill, black individuals were regularly excluded from entry into theatres and restaurants.

31 Institutional Racism Laws and practices that segregated minorities, especially blacks, from equal participation in Canadian society until the 1960’s Laws and practices that segregated minorities, especially blacks, from equal participation in Canadian society until the 1960’s

32 Individual Racism The attitude, belief or opinion that one’s own racial group has superior values and customs The attitude, belief or opinion that one’s own racial group has superior values and customs Personal attacks on others who are perceived as culturally or biologically inferior Personal attacks on others who are perceived as culturally or biologically inferior Racial violence against individuals by groups with deep racial beliefs, such as the White Aryan Notion Movement and the Skinheads found in many Canadian cities Racial violence against individuals by groups with deep racial beliefs, such as the White Aryan Notion Movement and the Skinheads found in many Canadian cities Polite racism Polite racism

33 Skinheads This group believes that the white race is superior and are prepared to transform society along white supremacy lines. This group believes that the white race is superior and are prepared to transform society along white supremacy lines. Believe “White is right!” Believe “White is right!”

34 Racist Beliefs Today Henry (1978) Henry (1978) First to measure racist attitudes in Canada First to measure racist attitudes in Canada 16% of whites are considered extremely racist, 16% of whites are considered extremely racist, 35% are somewhat racist 35% are somewhat racist Focus Canada Survey (1998) Focus Canada Survey (1998) 7-20% are strongly racist 7-20% are strongly racist 13% of Canadians would exclude non-white groups from immigrating 13% of Canadians would exclude non-white groups from immigrating 7% would not vote for a black political candidate 7% would not vote for a black political candidate

35 How do Racial Minorities Feel? Toronto in 1992 Toronto in % of Black, 63% of Chinese and 62% of East- Indian Canadians felt that they had experienced racial prejudice towards them. 80% of Black, 63% of Chinese and 62% of East- Indian Canadians felt that they had experienced racial prejudice towards them. 73% of Blacks, 48% of Chinese and 47% of East- Indian Canadians felt they had been racially discriminated against in obtaining a job 73% of Blacks, 48% of Chinese and 47% of East- Indian Canadians felt they had been racially discriminated against in obtaining a job

36 Ipsos-Reid Survey in 6 Canadians say they have been the victim of racism. 1 in 6 Canadians say they have been the victim of racism. Approximately one in ten (7% or 1,680,000 Canadian adults) would not welcome people from another race as next-door neighbours. Approximately one in ten (7% or 1,680,000 Canadian adults) would not welcome people from another race as next-door neighbours. 13% (3,120,000 Canadians) would never marry or have a relationship with someone of another race. 13% (3,120,000 Canadians) would never marry or have a relationship with someone of another race. 15% (3,360,000 Canadians) say skin colour makes a difference in their workplace. 15% (3,360,000 Canadians) say skin colour makes a difference in their workplace.

37 In 2005 which group did Canadians feel are the most likely to be targeted in their community with racist acts? Muslims/Arabs

38 So…do you think racism is a serious problem in Canadian society?

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40 Individual Racism – Polite??? Most racism in Canada is considered to be “polite” racism Most racism in Canada is considered to be “polite” racism no racist comments are shared openly with others, derogatory comments instead are made in private no racist comments are shared openly with others, derogatory comments instead are made in private Attempt to disguise a dislike of others through a non-prejudicial appearance Attempt to disguise a dislike of others through a non-prejudicial appearance Evident when turned down for jobs, promotions or accommodations; told job is full when it’s not Evident when turned down for jobs, promotions or accommodations; told job is full when it’s not More sophisticated racism but serves the same purpose to control, exploit and exclude others More sophisticated racism but serves the same purpose to control, exploit and exclude others

41 Polite Racism? Are we Really a Mosaic Country? Decima Research, October 1993 Decima Research, October respondents - 75% rejected the concept that Canada is a cultural mosaic - 72% believed that different racial and ethnic groups should adapt to Canadian society - 41% think that Canada lets too many people from different cultures and races into Canada

42 Prejudice Defined Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines prejudice as: “preconceived judgment or negative opinion formed without just grounds” In other words, prejudice is a negative attitude that we carry toward individuals or groups of people

43 Patterns of Prejudice & Discrimination by Robert Merton

44 Theoretical Perspectives: Differential Association & Conflict Differential Association by Edwin Sutherland – also known as The Learning Theory Differential Association by Edwin Sutherland – also known as The Learning Theory Basic Propositions of the theory: Basic Propositions of the theory: (i) Criminal/deviant behaviour is learned through the process of social interaction with those individuals the person has intimate relationships with (no one is born a criminal) (ii) Through social interaction, the individual also learns: motives (excuses and justifications) about their deviant behaviours, attitudes, and techniques (however simple or complex)

45 Differential Association Cont’d (iii) A person becomes a deviant because he or she has excessive associations with deviant groups and limited associations with non-deviant groups (iv) The process of learning deviant behaviour is the same as the process by which non-deviant behaviour is learned

46 Differential Association Cont’d (v) Associations with deviant and non-deviant groups vary in: a) Priority – when in life these associations occur b) Intensity – how meaningful associations are to individual c) Duration – how long the associations last d) Frequency – how often the associations occur

47 Prejudice (Pre-judge): To have an opinion or image based on previously held ideas rather than knowledge or experience. Discriminate: To treat a particular group, or member of a particular group differently or unfairly. It is based on prejudices.

48 Differential Association Cont’d Children learn racism and learn to hate members of ethnic groups (no one is born with racial attitudes) Children learn racism and learn to hate members of ethnic groups (no one is born with racial attitudes) In regards to the reading from Tanner “Skinheads and the Politics of Race” the learning theory can be applied to explain the deviant ways of the Skinhead youth In regards to the reading from Tanner “Skinheads and the Politics of Race” the learning theory can be applied to explain the deviant ways of the Skinhead youth Mark Hamm argues that Skinheads “are the products of white, working class families [who] grow up conforming to the dominant achievement ethic and are successful in school” Mark Hamm argues that Skinheads “are the products of white, working class families [who] grow up conforming to the dominant achievement ethic and are successful in school”

49 Differential Association Cont’d These youth learn to be racist and discriminatory from the people they choose to associate with These youth learn to be racist and discriminatory from the people they choose to associate with The fact that these youth grew up in “good, working class” families does not make them immune to becoming deviants The fact that these youth grew up in “good, working class” families does not make them immune to becoming deviants Though the family is considered to be a primary agent in the socialization process, some individuals may be more heavily influenced by their peers Though the family is considered to be a primary agent in the socialization process, some individuals may be more heavily influenced by their peers

50 Differential Association Cont’d The same can be said about the reading in our text “Why do they hate us? What to do.” by Fareed Zakaria The same can be said about the reading in our text “Why do they hate us? What to do.” by Fareed Zakaria The reading is about Arab resistance to U.S. policies through the use of terrorism The reading is about Arab resistance to U.S. policies through the use of terrorism Terrorism can be looked at as being a learned behaviour Terrorism can be looked at as being a learned behaviour Sutherland would argue that “Terrorists” learn their criminal behaviour from people they associate with and are influenced by Sutherland would argue that “Terrorists” learn their criminal behaviour from people they associate with and are influenced by In general, it can be argued that racism and prejudice are learned behaviours that are the result of negative associations in one’s life (be it family, friends, etc.) In general, it can be argued that racism and prejudice are learned behaviours that are the result of negative associations in one’s life (be it family, friends, etc.)

51 Criticisms of Differential Association Theory 1. Theory cannot explain all complex processes involved in criminal behaviour (some individuals commit crimes without learning practices) 1. Theory cannot explain all complex processes involved in criminal behaviour (some individuals commit crimes without learning practices) 2. Perspective ignores personality or psychological traits 2. Perspective ignores personality or psychological traits 3. Many techniques learned by criminals are learned by legitimate means 3. Many techniques learned by criminals are learned by legitimate means 4. Emphasis is on socialization – does not explain why criminal or deviant behaviour was there in the first place i.e.) why did person start hanging around deviants? 4. Emphasis is on socialization – does not explain why criminal or deviant behaviour was there in the first place i.e.) why did person start hanging around deviants?

52 Conflict Theory Relevant Propositions of Conflict Theory Relevant Propositions of Conflict Theory Power is the most important explanatory variable Power is the most important explanatory variable - use power to maintain one’s position at the expense of others is the fundamental cause of social problems such as racism - use power to maintain one’s position at the expense of others is the fundamental cause of social problems such as racism Groups that have clashing interests compete with each other, therefore producing winners and losers Groups that have clashing interests compete with each other, therefore producing winners and losers - conflicts benefit the winners at the expense of the losers - conflicts benefit the winners at the expense of the losers

53 Power is the most important explanatory variable - use power to maintain one’s position at the expense of others is the fundamental cause of social problems such as racism - The Indian Act, Africville

54 Groups that have clashing interests compete with each other, therefore producing winners and losers - conflicts benefit the winners at the expense of the losers - conflicts benefit the winners at the expense of the losers - The winners interests and beliefs are strengthen while the losers beliefs are abused - American History X example

55 Raising Awareness

56 Since 1966, March 21 st has been recognized as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination by the United Nations Since 1966, March 21 st has been recognized as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination by the United Nations Initiated in response for the need to increase awareness of the harmful effects of racism Initiated in response for the need to increase awareness of the harmful effects of racism Canadian youth have spoken out: there’s no room for racism in their lives Canadian youth have spoken out: there’s no room for racism in their lives Youth are the voice of the future Youth are the voice of the future

57 2003 Winner of Racism. Stop it! National Video Competition “Why Do You Tease Me?” Southview Community School Medicine Hat, AB “Why Do You Tease Me?” Southview Community School Medicine Hat, AB Students across the country are challenged to create a one-minute video that expresses their feelings about racism Students across the country are challenged to create a one-minute video that expresses their feelings about racism

58 Discussion Questions Is racist behaviour considered deviant in all situations? Is racist behaviour considered deviant in all situations?

59 Discussion Questions Is racist behaviour considered deviant in all situations? Is racist behaviour considered deviant in all situations? Is affirmative action “reverse discrimination” or an unfair advantage to members of minority groups? Is affirmative action “reverse discrimination” or an unfair advantage to members of minority groups?

60 Discussion Questions Is racist behaviour considered deviant in all situations? Is racist behaviour considered deviant in all situations? Is affirmative action “reverse discrimination” or an unfair advantage to members of minority groups? Is affirmative action “reverse discrimination” or an unfair advantage to members of minority groups? Will events like Racism. Stop it! And other awareness programs be able to erase racism in our society? Why or why not? Will events like Racism. Stop it! And other awareness programs be able to erase racism in our society? Why or why not?


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