Georgia and the American Experience Section 1: What is Geography? What is Geography?What is Geography? Section 2: Geographic Regions of Georgia Geographic Regions of GeorgiaGeographic Regions of Georgia Section 3: Georgia’s Climate Georgia’s ClimateGeorgia’s Climate
Section 1: What is Geography? Essential Question - What roles do the six essential elements of geography play in our lives?
Section 1: What is Geography? What geographic terms do I need to know? -- geography -- absolute location -- relative location
What is Geography? Geographica (Greek origin) means “earth’s description”. Science of studying Earth as the home of humans. Geography helps us understand why Georgia’s native peoples and later settlers chose certain parts of the state for their home.
Understanding Georgia: Spatial Geography Spatial: How Georgians organize their space and environment: –159 counties –five bordering states
Understanding Georgia: Places and Regions Places and Regions: People create regions to understand Earth’s complexities Georgia has five physiographic regions 18 islands 58, 910 square miles 854 square inland water miles
Understanding Georgia through Geography Physical Systems: Physical processes that shape the earth’s surface Coastal islands (southeast Georgia) Appalachian Mountains (north Georgia) Fall Line divides east and west Georgia
Understanding Georgia: Human Systems Human Systems: Where Georgians migrated and settled Atlanta (Fulton County) is the capital Twiggs County (geographic center) Port of Savannah (first major settlement) Brasstown Bald (highest geographic point)
Understanding Georgia: Environment and Society Environment and Society: Actions of humans modify the environment Suburban sprawl in metropolitan Atlanta Interstates and highways Urban population centers Rural farmlands and agricultural regions
Understanding Georgia: Uses of Geography Uses of Geography: Interpret Georgia’s past, understand its present, plan for its future Location from one settlement to another affects how each settlement develops Georgia’s location relative to other states affects Georgia’s growth and economic development
Understanding Location Absolute location: A precise position on Earth’s surface Georgia is located at 30°– 35°N latitude, 80°– 85° W longitude Georgia borders Florida (south), Alabama (west), Tennessee and North Carolina (north), and South Carolina (east).
Understanding Location Relative Location: Where Georgia is located compared with other places North America Southeastern United States Atlantic coast Click here to return to main menu.
Section 2: Geographic Regions of Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTION -- How would you describe the geographic regions of Georgia?
Section 2: Geographic Regions of Georgia What words do I need to know? -- Fall Line -- Region -- Precipitation -- Wetland -- Barrier Island -- Continental Shelf
Section 2: Geographic Regions of Georgia What regions do I need to know? -- Appalachian Plateau Region -- Ridge and Valley Region -- Blue Ridge Region -- Piedmont Plateau -- Coastal Plain Region -- Okefenokee Swamp
Appalachian Plateau Region Georgia’s smallest physiographic region Many limestone caves, deep canyons, rock formations Cumberland Plateau (Lookout Mountain and Sand Mountain separated by limestone ridges)Lookout MountainSand Mountain Limestone, shale, and sandstone soils
Ridge and Valley Region Between Blue Ridge Mountains and Appalachian Plateau Appalachian Plateau Low open valleys parallel to narrow ridges Elevations ranges from 700 to 1600 feet above sea level Forests and pastures dominate the region Limestone and clay soils in the valley Shale and sandstone on the ridges
Blue Ridge Region Northeastern part of state Contains state’s highest and largest group of mountains Brasstown Bald, Georgia highest mountain is hereBrasstown Bald Mountains provide much precipitation (water) for the state Sandy loam and clay soils Hardwood forests, vegetable farming, and apples
Piedmont Plateau Begins in mountain foothills and goes to state’s central part Gently sloping hills in north, flatlands in the south Hardwood timber, pine, and agriculture Red clay and granite basegranite base Chattahoochee, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Oconee rivers
Coastal Plain Region Largest region, three-fifths of state Inner Coastal Plain: Mild climate, good underground water supply, state’s major agriculture regionMild climate Outer Coastal Plain (southwest corner): rich soil for peanuts, pecans, corn, and pulp production Low-lying freshwater wetlands
Okefenokee Swamp 681 square miles Located south of Waycross Largest swamp in North America Freshwater wetland Water lies close to the surface
Islands of Gold Spanish explorers called the barrier islands “islands of gold”barrier islands Protect beaches by blocking sand, winds, and water that could erode the mainland Two-thirds remains wilderness areas Much recreation, seafood gathering Deep water ports for shipping
Shelves and Lines Georgia’s continental shelf is portion of coastal plain that extends into the ocean The Continental slope falls into deep plateaus and into the Atlantic Ocean depths The Fall Line, a natural boundary, separates the Coastal Plain from the Piedmont PlateauFall Line
Fall Line Features Hilly or mountainous lands meet the coastal plain Runs from Columbus (west) through Macon to Augusta (east) Many waterfalls caused by water from the hills cutting channels into the softer soil of the plains Fall Line waterfalls provide power source for several Georgia communitiesFall Line Click here to return to main menu.
Section 3: Georgia’s Climate ESSENTIAL QUESTION -- How would you describe the climate of Georgia?
Section 3: Georgia’s Climate What concepts do I need to know? -- Difference between weather and climate -- Effect of weather conditions on the state -- Different types of weather phenomena
Georgia’s Temperature Mild climate, subtropical feel along the coast Hot, humid summers and mild winters Four distinct seasons: Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter Vertical climate (higher elevation in mountains causes colder temperatures) July is hottest month; January is coldest
Georgia’s Precipitation In normal year, Georgia gets inches of rain in central and southern regions and inches in the northern mountains July is wettest month; October is driest From 1998 to 2002, Georgia experienced a major drought (extended lack of precipitation)
Winds and Currents Air masses from Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean control summer’s warm months. Air masses from polar regions of Alaska and Canada control Georgia’s winters. Ocean currents, trade winds, and prevailing westerlies aided travel for early explorers and settlers to Georgia.
Storms over Georgia Georgia averages 21 tornadoes each year, resulting in one to three deaths Most tornadoes in Georgia occur from March to May Georgia’s most hurricane-like storm (in terms of lives lost) occurred in Savannah in 1893 Called the “Sea Islands Hurricane,” the storm resulted in 1,000 deaths.Sea Islands Hurricane Click here to return to main menu.