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Presentation on theme: "PROJECT LIFETCY98/CY/167 INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL AND CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IPPC-The Situation in Cyprus Leandros Nicolaides Senior Labour."— Presentation transcript:

1 PROJECT LIFETCY98/CY/167 INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL AND CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IPPC-The Situation in Cyprus Leandros Nicolaides Senior Labour Inspection Officer Department of Labour Inspection Ministry of Labour & Social Insurance

2 The Cyprus Situation - 1 n Population : 751 500 of whom 639 200 Greek Cypriots 88 200 Turkish Cypriots n Area 9 251 sq. Km n 10 000 Industrial Installations generating wastes other than municipal

3 The Cyprus Situation - 2 n Amounts of Industrial Wastes - Solid : 84 000 t/a - Liquid : 3.1 mil. M3/a

4 Cyprus is a member of n The 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and n The EMEP Protocol to the Convention

5 Air Emissions

6 Cyprus - SO2 Emitter- Receiver, t/a

7 Cyprus - NO2 Emitter- Receiver, t/a

8 SO 2 Emissions, Kg/head 1999 Data n Belgium 24,5 n Germany 15,9 n Spain 57,3 n Sweden 7,6 n UK 22 n Greece 57,2 n CYPRUS 75,3 will be <60 by 2010

9 THE IPPC DIRECTIVE n Based on the E.C. 5th Environmental Action Programme, adopted in 1993. n Adopted in 1996 n Into effect : October 1999

10 THE IPPC DIRECTIVE - One of the three approaches in E.U. 1. Command - and Control e.g. LCP Directive. 2. Flexible legislation e.g. IPPC Directive. 3. Voluntary/Market -based e.g. EMAS Regulation, emissions trading scheme

11 IPPC - BASIC PROVISIONS n Purpose : To achieve integrated prevention and control of pollution from a wide range of activities by the introduction of measures which will reduce air, water and land pollution, considering the environment as a whole.

12 Six main categories 1. Energy 2. Production/processing of metals 3. Mineral industry 4. Chemical industry 5. Waste management 6. Other (pulp and paper, tanning, certain agricultural installations)

13 General Principles n Application of BAT´s n Avoidance of Waste production n Recovery of wastes where possible n Disposal ¨avoiding or reducing any impact on the environment¨ n Efficient use of energy n Accident prevention and mitigation n Return of the site to a satisfactory state.

14 Permitting Procedure n Integrated approach - full co- ordination of the Authorities involved n Permit conditions based on BAT´s

15 BAT´s n Concept plays central role in the Directive n Best means ….. n Available means …. n Techniques means… n Information Exchange on BAT´s

16 Information Exchange on BAT´s 1. Reporting to Commission by M.S. 2. BREFS n Industrial activities grouped in about 30 sectors n + Cross - sectoral issues (horizontal BREFS) n Responsibility for BREFS: DG- Envir. n Techn.Work : Eur. IPPC Bureau, Seville

17 IPPC - DIRECTIVE Conclusions of a Workshop The Hague, April 2001

18 1. One of the most difficult Directives. 2. Contributes to innovation, economic and social cohesion, fair competition 3. Permit required. Ideally 1 permit, 1 authority, 1 procedure. 4. It is flexible.

19 5. Application of BAT requires technical resources. 6. BREFS are living documents, should not serve as an Act. 7. Constructive dialogue is useful. 8. Public participation/information dissemination are vital components of the Directive.

20 9. Confidentiality of information is of particular interest. 10. Presupposes the development of Administrative structures and scientific knowledge. 11. Training of Authorities and Inspectors is important. 13. Synergies among IPPC, EIA, SEVESO, EMAS.

21 THE CYPRUS SITUATION n 30 Industrial Installations n 72 Installations for the Raising of Pigs or Poultry Belonging to 15 Categories altogether

22 The 15 categories 1. Landfill sites 2. Ceramic and Tiles 3. Lime 4. Cement 5. Energy 6. Rendering 7. Metal Plating

23 The 15 Categories con´d. 8. Mineral oil 9. Refineries 10. Slaughter Houses 11. Metal foundries 12. Hydrometallurgical Processes 13. Aluminium Recycling 14. Piggeries 15. Poultry Raising

24 All 15 categories known/assessed n All Industrial Installations licensed under the Atmospheric Pollution Control Law and the Waters Pollution Control Law n Only a few of the Pigs/Poultry Farms licensed under the Waters Pollution Control Law

25 All 15 Categories BAT’s prepared for all Categories Based on n E.U. BREF’s, n European National ( Greece, Ireland, U.K. ) or International ( World Bank ) documents Gap Analysis prepared for each Category

26 Gap Analysis n Comparison of the present prevailing situation within each category with that required by the BAT n identification of Gaps n Prescription of measures needed to close the Gaps

27 Main Gaps n Power Industry ……. closing soon n Landfill Sites GAP n Lime ……….closing soon n Cement ………closing soon n Slaughter Houses ………closing soon n Ferrous metal Foundries... closing soon n Pigs/Poultry Farms GAP

28 EXAMPLES OF POLLUTION PREVENTING MEASURES n 1. Batteries Manufacturer n Total effluent stream chemically treated and re-used. n The produced Sludge from the treatment process exported for Pb recovery

29 2. Dairy Industry n The effluent stream is biologically treated and the water is used for the irrigation of fruit trees. n The sludge is used as a soil conditioner

30 3. Brewery n The effluent streams are treated both anaerobically and aerobically. n Anaerobic treatment : Biogas utilised as needed n Aerobic: The water is used for irrigation n Sludge : To CWWTP at Vathia Gonia n Spent yeast : Animal feed

31 4. Pesticides Formulator n All washings of tanks and of drums kept and re-used. n Dust from the bag filters used as filler in the formulations.

32 5. Bricks and Tiles n New technology introduced ( tunnel kiln, pulsed combustion) resulted in 30% savings in fuel consumption. n Energy recovery at high levels

33 6. Cement Production n Bag filter up-grading From 300mg/Nm3 to 50 mg/Nm3 Result: Clinker capture 750 kg/day

34 7. Paints production n Unit for the recovery of spent solvents

35 8. Ice Cream production n Implementation of a water management system Result: 30% reduction in effluents quantity.

36 9. Soap production n Use of high purity raw materials Results: - Liquid effluents eliminated - Production improved - Production costs lowered

37 10. Plastics Industry n All scrub and off- specifications products milled and re-used.

38 11. Plasters Industry n Installation of a bag filter - Resulted in the capture of high valued micronised dust sold as filler in the paints and other industries - Pay-back period : 2 and 1/2 years

39 12. Compressor leakage - Example n Say 1cfm leakage n P= 0,0643*T a *γ*q 0 *[(p b /p a ) 1-1/(γ -1) ]/{520*(γ-1)*η] n p a : pressure, state a n T a : temperature, state a n γ=1,31 n η=Compressor efficiency n q o : cfm, std conditions n p b : pressure, state b

40 Compressor leakage, con´d n P= 0,32hp n For electrical efficiency 0,90 n P=0,35hp per 1 cfm n For 1 lit/min P=0,012hp n For 4h operation n W=0,036kWh n For 5c/kWh cost : CP 0,18 per 1l/m leakage


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