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2011 Potato Disease Management Update Barry J. Jacobsen Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Montana State University-Bozeman

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Presentation on theme: "2011 Potato Disease Management Update Barry J. Jacobsen Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Montana State University-Bozeman"— Presentation transcript:

1 2011 Potato Disease Management Update Barry J. Jacobsen Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Montana State University-Bozeman Office: Cell: /16/11 Missoula

2 Destroy cull piles by June 1-burial 4 ft deep-control volunteers-these are both sources of late blight and several viruses

3 Sanitation Use quaternary ammonium compounds (many trade names) to disinfect handling and cutting equipment. Be sure that surfaces are wet with disinfectant for minutes minimum. Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) or formaldehyde can be use but are corrosive

4 Disinfectants need surfaces wet for minutes DisinfectantInactivated By organic material Corrosive to metal Shelf lifeComments Quaternary Ammonia someslight1-2 yearsMany brands follow label Excellent wetting properties Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach-5.25% NaOCl) yes Product-6mo <2 days in light-diluted Use 1: Add 0.6 parts white vinegar to lower pH Iodinesomeyes1-2 yearsHas residual activity Chlorine Dioxide Less than bleach Yes-esp. brass and aluminum Activated product-2 weeks Broad activity FormaldehydesomeyesweeksBroad activity

5 Seed Treatment Use Maxim MZ or treat with maneb or mancozeb dust after Cruiser Maxx-Maxim (Fludioxonil) resistance in Fusarium has been found-as a seed producing state we must avoid shipping Maxim resistant Fusarium Dynasty fl oz/cwt- Rhizoctonia black scurf and stem canker, black dot, silver scurf at 25 cwt /A you will need fl oz/cwt to equal Quadris infurrow rate of fl oz/1000 row ft ( floz/A-36” rows).

6 Revus Section 18 Lake and Sanders Counties only-for control of seedborne late blight- control seed infection and spread of late blight spores/mycelia during storage unloading and shipping fl oz/cwt in 1-2 qt water /ton- need good coverage Treated potatoes are to only be used only for seed and excess materials must be buried in an approved landfill. Potato crops grown from Revus-treated seed potatoes may receive no more than 2 foliar applications of Revus or Revus Top (EPA Reg. No. 1278) fungicide according to the directions for use on those product labels. Restrictions/Precautions  For use on potatoes intended for seed use only  Do not use on potatoes intended for consumption use  Make only 1 seed treatment application of Revus fungicide to seed potatoes  Treated seed must be labeled in accordance with the Federal Seed Act  Do not exceed 0.4 fl. oz. Revus fungicide per 100 lbs of seed potatoes

7 Seed Treatment If you use Revus treatment for late blight (Lake and Sanders Counties only) you must use maneb, mancozeb, Moncoat MZ, Tops MZ, Maxim MZ treatment Evolve (Thiophante-methyl, mancozeb, cymoxanil (Curzate)- use where Revus not used and late blight infected seed is suscpeted

8 Treatment % seed pieces with Phytophthora infestans infection DL data untreated100 a Curzate 60DF (Cymoxanil) 1.0 oz/cwt3-11 Curzate60DF (Cymoxanil) 0.25 oz/cwt83-97 Revus Mandipropamid 0.4 oz/cwt0 DJ Data-Trial 1Trial 1Trial 2 Untreated-inoculated100 a57 a Untreated non-inoculated0 c Curzate DF 0.6 oz/cwt25 bc 14 b (w/mancozeb Revus 0.60 fl oz/cwt0 c0 Control of potato seed piece late blight infection using Cymoxanil (Curzate) and mandipropamid (Revus) tuber treatments (DL= Dave Lambert and DJ= Dennis Johnson)

9 Black Dot Use Quadris infurrow or Dynasty seed treatment When plants are 6-12” tall apply mancozeb, chlorothalonil, Quadris Opti, Headline Because of resistance management I would not suggest using Headline alone for the post emergence spray

10 Rhizoctonia Dynasty seed treatment fl oz/cwt needed to equal effective rate of Quadris Quadris, Blocker, Headline, Moncut infurrow- band treatments

11 Early Blight You have this disease in every field every year-~10% yield loss Start fungicide sprays at P days depending on variety- you will get excellent control Be sure you have enough N for yield objectives- use petiole N tests and supplement as recommended

12 Optimal Petiole Nitrate Stage of Growth Days after emergence Dry Weight BasisSap Basis NorkotahRusset Burbank NorkotahRusset Burbank Univ. of Wisconsin

13 Late Blight Use weather-based prediction system- this will tell you if the environment is favorable Scouting

14 Potato Late Blight Phytophthora infestans

15 Late Blight Where late blight was present in 2010 – use Revus plus other seed treatment – Begin protective contact fungicide on 7-10 day basis at emergence till vine kill – Control volunteers ( need<25 0 F at 4-6” for kill) and hairy or bittersweet nightshade – Switch to systemic/translaminar materials when late blight predicted or observed-remember fungicide resistance management – Use TPTH (SuperTin/AgriTin) or Ranman at vine kill Where late blight was not present in 2010 – Use weather-based predictive system – Apply fungicides for early blight that are also effective for late blight – Switch to systemic/translaminar materials when late blight predicted or observed- remember fungicide resistance management- continue at recommended interval till vine kill – Use TPTH (SuperTin/AgriTin) or Ranman at vine kill

16 Bittersweet and Hairy Nightshades are hosts for Late blight and PVY

17 Clearfield-Beyond herbicide Imidazolinone Volunteer wheat, potato, etc

18 Fungicide Application Aerial Application- use minimum of 5gallons water /A-aircraft boom should be no more than ft over crop if higher will likely get poor canopy penetration- are there obstacles ?- untreated plants are a problem! Ground sprayers- need gallons water/A Chemigation-good canopy penetration and coverage need ~ “ for application. With higher rates may lose some fungicide Aerial and Chemigation- a good combination since get best canopy penetration and coverage for cost

19 Pythium Leak Pythium ultimum P. debaryanum Pink rot Phytophthora erythroseptica Common with warm wet harvests Avoid excess water Fungicides Phostrol, flower +14 days-at planting treatments not as Effective-can apply with layby

20 Pythium Leak-Pink Rot Infection usually through injuries Favored by high temperatures (77-88F) at harvest Disease will temperatures< 50F In storage-cool and dry crop as fast as possible mefenoxam, phostrol-infurrow, foliar during tuberization Pink rot- Ranman-infurrow and use full label rate

21 Sclerotinia white mold~10-15% yield loss- fewer tubers in 4-8 oz size Infection: at bloom-through fallen flowers Apply fungicides at row closure-first bloom Endura 5-10 oz-also controls early blight Omega fl oz-also controls late blight. Contans: apply fall before planting with light Incorporation-a fungal parasite

22 PVY/PVA Consider crop borders-”aphid stylet cleaning stations” Control volunteers and Hairy nightshade ( a good host for virus and green peach aphid) Start foliar applied aphid insecticide program days after planting treatments with group 4A materials (Admire, Cruiser, etc) – Non colonizing aphids like Bird Cherry- Oat aphids move from grain as crop ripens-late June-July – Mineral crop oils- oil reduces aphid acquisition and transmission of virus- need coverage, 5-7 day intervals, can use with insecticides Use “soft materials” Fullfill, Movento, neonicotinoid-4A materials – use till vine kill (no green vine tissue)- follow insecticide resistance management suggestions ~2 hr virus retention

23 Preparing the crop for harvest Harvest physiologically mature tubers – Selection of appropriate variety – Low sugar (<0.15% fresh weight, 0.8% dry weight), high solids ( high starch content) – Nitrogen levels should be low ppm- avoid N application within 4-6 weeks of vine kill Soil Moisture should be in 70-75% available moisture – Dry soil = more bruise – Wetter= more loss from Pythium leak, soft rot Vine kill allow days for good skin set – Avoid leaving tuber in soil under dead vines too long- can affect physiological age of seed

24 Under normal conditions damage during harvest and piling is where dry rot starts

25 Avoid bruising This is primary site for storage pathogen entry Harvester, windrower, trucks, handling equipment – Disinfest all equipment that will contact potatoes and the storage – Digger blade should deliver potatoes to top of primary chain – Carry soil to top of primary- adjust secondary speed to keep full – Inspect replace worn parts – Look for sites where drops are > 6-8” – Think about padding, chain type, etc – Avoid roll back when piling Harvest when pulp temperatures are F Curing period of 7-10 days at 50-60F will allow tuber to heal wounds with cork-this tissue is very resistant to pathogen invasion

26 Tuber Pulp Temperature and Bruising Pulp Temperature% Bruise 35 F50 40 F35 45 F25 55 F20 Optimally pulp temperature should be >45 F, preferably F. If > 65 F losses from soft rot and Pythium leak can be serious

27 Fig. 1. Digger blade and deviner chain positioning for reduced tuber damage. (Adapted from G.M. Hyde, R.E. Thornton and R.E. Hermanson, 1983, Ext. Bul. 1080, Coop Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State university, Pullman). Harvester is major source of bruising. Digger blade should be positioned so as to deliver soil and potatoes up onto the primary chain. Use belted chain- padded chain on crossover. Operate at capacity and minimize all drops- try for <6”. Coordinate chain speed with forward speed so volume is equal to capacity Get videos from National Potato Anti-Bruise Committee of Potato Association of America

28 Storing Problem Potatoes Late blight, Frost, Wet Store separate from good potatoes if possible Harvest with pulp temperature F If frost or blight-wait few days so compromised potatoes can be identified ( will work best if temperatures are >50F) Remove damaged potatoes before piling Consider use of post harvest disease control products- BioSave, Purogene, Jet Oxide, Oxidate, Storox, etc – Only BioSave has residual activity. Other materials will kill soft rot bacteria and fungal pathogens they come in direct contact with- there is no residual action! – Direct application is best since these products are rapidly tied up on organic matter. Univ. of Idaho data suggests movement in pile is limited to <4ft.

29 Post- harvest spray application volumes Dry and 0.25 gal/T Dry and 1.0 gal/T Dry and 2.0 gal/T Dry and 0.50 gal/T

30 Storing Problem Potatoes Late blight, Frost, Wet--II Keep pile shallow ( 25 cfm)- run fans continuously until crop is dry. Free moisture is your enemy! Monitor storage daily-watch for off odors, heating-infrared temperature guns will help identify problem areas early-remove these areas Use outside air no more than 5F warmers than tubers otherwise you will have condensation – free water films reduce oxygen availability to tuber and allows spread of bacteria – In low oxygen situations Clostridium sp. bacteria can cause smelly decay

31 Carbon Dioxide tuber is living thing needs oxygen Metabolism of potato tuber and associated microorganisms generates CO 2 -microbes like soft rot bacteria generate heat. Immature, injured, stressed tubers have higher metabolic rate and will generate more CO 2 The lower the temperature the slower the metabolism CO 2 levels of ~4% will be favorable to development of both Fusarium dry rot and bacterial soft rot Ventilate with outside air to maintain CO 2 levels below 0.5% (5000 ppm)

32 Thank you Questions


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