2Historyan olden days for dental treatment., they used needle-nose pliers designed by fauchard in the late 17th century to use in prosthodontics The first book focused solely on densitry was the artzney buchlein in 1530 and the first called operator for the teeth by Charles allen in 1685.
3What is Dentistry..?Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial area.
54: dentin & dentin tubules 5: pulp chamber 6: blood vessels and nerve 3: enamel1: Crown4: dentin & dentin tubules5: pulp chamber6: blood vessels and nerve7: periodontal ligament2: Root8: apex and periapical region9: alveolar bone
6Do AND Don’ts of oral hyigene a new born child should visit the doctor in 6 months of birth or before the 1st birthday of the child. AAPD (American academy of pediatrics dentistry) has said that its is important to establish a comprhensive and accessiable on goin relationship between the dentist and patience. Every 3 moths once change the tooth brush and visit the dentist. Go under proprer treatment. Gourgle your mouyh after eating sweets. Promote the dental health of children as serve as educational resource for parents
7Dental TreatmentThe majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth, extraction or surgical removal of teeth, scaling and root planing and endodontic root canal treatment.Dentists also encourage prevention of oral diseases through proper hygiene and regular, twice yearly, checkups for professional cleaning and evaluation. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, or cancer. Many studies have also shown that gum disease is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, heart disease, and preterm birth.
8Specialties (Dentistry) Endodontics (also called endodontology)Oral and maxillofacial pathologyOral and maxillofacial radiologyProsthodontics (prosthetic dentisty)rSpecial needs dentistry (also called special care dentistry)Veterinary dentistry, ( veterinary medicine )Pediatric dentistry (also called pedodontics)Geriatric dentistry etc….
10ENDODOTIC Endodontic(surgery involing the pulp or root of the tooth) 1.Root canal* Pulpectomy(the opening of the pulp chamber of the tooth to allow an infection to drain..,usally a precursor to a root canal* pulpectomy(the removal of the pulp from the pulp chamber to temporarily relieve pain..,usally a precursor to a root canalENDODOTIC2. Apicoectomy * A root canal alone will not be enough to relieve pain & the tooth, called the apex,will be removed by entering through the gingiva & surgically extracting the diseased material.
11ProsthodonticsIt include crowns., veneers., bridges., implants., denturesCrowns (tooth must be reshaped to accommodate these these fixed restorations)Veneers (aesthetic purpose only)Bridges ( replace a missing tooth or teeth)Implants ( artificial tooth)Dentures (false teeth)
12orthodonticErtraction (this can be done under local or general anesthesia & very common)apiectomy ( treatment as part of the underlying bone structure must be done)Fiberotomy (a procedure to severe the fibers around a tooth,preventing it from relapsing
13Modern DentistryThe French surgeon Pierre Fauchard became known as the "father of modern dentistry". Despite the limitations of the primitive surgical instruments during the late 17th and early 18th century, Fauchard was a highly skilled surgeon who made remarkable improvisations of dental instruments, often adapting tools from watch makers, jewelers and even barbers, that he thought could be used in dentistry. He introduced dental fillings as treatment for dental cavities. He asserted that sugar derivate acids like tartaric acid were responsible for dental decay, and also suggested that tumors surrounding the teeth, in the gums, could appear in the later stages of tooth decay.
15What is Cancer? Division – uncontrolled cell division Growth – formation of a lump (tumour) or large numbers of abnormal white cells in the bloodMutation – changes to how the cell is viewed by the immune systemSpread – ability to move within the body and survive in another part
16The Global Burden of Cancer MenWomen5.3 million cases3.5 million deaths4.7 million cases2.7 million deathsLungBreastColon/RectumStomachLiverProstateCervix uteriOesophagusBladderNon-Hodgkin LymphomaLeukaemiaOral cavityPancreasKidneyOvary9023378102931050370499446255234558318405241398166384165543204471233279133227111260769933167121936814411310986170978147IncidenceMortality116101112101119715734192114(Thousands)From: D.M. Parkin The Lancet Oncology 2: (2001)
17Types of CancerCarcinomasSarcomasLymphomasLeukaemiasAdenomas
18What are the differences in the features of normal and cancer cells?
22Smoking Single biggest cause of cancer 25-40% smokers die in middle ageSmoking is the single biggest cause of cancer in the worldExperts agree that smoking is the single biggest cause of cancer in the world Smoking causes over a quarter of cancer deaths in developed countries.4Around half of current smokers will be killed by their habit if they continue to smoke. And 25-40% of smokers will die in middle age 5 6Smoking causes even more deaths from other respiratory diseases and heart conditions than from cancer.2 If current trends continue, scientists estimate that tobacco will kill about one billion people in the twenty-first century.2Back to topSmoking greatly increases the risk of lung cancerStudies from Europe, Japan and North America have shown that 9 in 10 lung cancers are caused by smoking.2 7 In 2002, lung cancer killed around 33,600 people – about one person every 15 minutes.8Tobacco smoke was first shown to cause lung cancer in This study found that people who smoked cigarettes a day had 26 times the lung cancer risk of non-smokers. And people who smoked less than 15 cigarettes a day still had 8 times the lung cancer risk of non-smokers.After these first results came out, UK scientists began a large study of smoking in British doctors, which Cancer Research UK has helped to fund.10 This British Doctors’ Study has provided much of our current knowledge about the dangers of smoking.
234. Eat fresh fruit and vegetables several times a day. To Avoid Cancer1. Don’t smoke2. Avoid exposure to other known carcinogens, including aflatoxin, asbestos and UV light.3. Enjoy a healthy diet, moderate in calories,salt and fat, and low in alcohol.4. Eat fresh fruit and vegetables several times a day.5. Be physically active and avoid obesity.6. Have vaccination against, or early detection/treatmentof, cancer causing chronic infections.7. Have the right genes.
24Summary Cancer is a disease of Division, growth and spread It has a number of causes many of them preventableThe survival of the patient is determined by the stage of the disease, the earlier the detection or the smaller the tumour the better the survival
25How teeth is affected when cancer is there??? If a patient has cancer in any part of the body they undergo radiation treatment which is very harmful and passes harmful rays which will affect the mouth by germs so they may causes decay to the tooth….! Cancer people usualy get ulcer. If it comes in mouth they wont be able to brush properly which may cause damage to the tooth. If we eat beetal leaves it may cause cancer and harm the teeth