Presentation on theme: "DENT 1140 Pathology Unit 3 PLAQUE-ASSOCIATED DISEASES."— Presentation transcript:
DENT 1140 Pathology Unit 3 PLAQUE-ASSOCIATED DISEASES
ATTRITION -- Wearing away of teeth by natural means (such as chewing) – OR Normal loss of tooth substance resulting from friction caused by physiologic factors like chewing – LOSS OF TOOTH STRUCTURE AS A RESULT OF mechanical WEAR
ABRASION The abnormal wearing away of a substance or tissue by a mechanical process. The grinding or wearing away of tooth substance by mastication, incorrect brushing methods,bruxism, or similar causes. WEARING AWAY OF TOOTH TISSUES, Most often by incorrect brushing
EROSION Loss of hard tissue of teeth by chemical process. The superficial wearing away of tooth substance, not involving bacteria. – (Lemon sucking or eating disorders) The chemical or mechanicochemical destruction of tooth substance, the mechanism of which is unknown, that leads to creation of concavities of many shapes at the cementoenamel junction of teeth.
What are these?
ANKYLOSIS An abnormal fixation and immobility of a joint. Fusion of cementum with alveolar bone caused by absence of periodontal ligament. ABNORMAL FUSION (joining together) OF TOOTH AND ALVEOLAR BONE
CELLULITIS Inflammation that spreads through the substance of the tissue or organ Swelling and discomfort of facial tissues caused by an abscess.
DENTAL CARIES An infectious disease resulting from the destruction of tooth by microbial acids. OR An infectious disease that progressively destroys tooth substance.
DENTAL PLAQUE Soft deposits that cling to the tooth or gingiva, made up of bacteria and bacterial products --A sticky substance that accumulates on the teeth composed of saliva and bacteria and responsible for caries and gingival inflammation
INCIPIENT CARIES A decayed part of a tooth in which the lesion is just coming into existence. Beginning tooth decay that has not broken through the enamel into the dentin. (Usually these are marked as “watch” areas on the charting)
DEMINERLIZATION Case in which calcium and phosphorus are lost from the enamel surface. The removal of mineral components from mineralized tissues.
RECURRENT CARIES The extension of the carious process beyond the margin of a restoration. Decay occurring beneath the margin of an existing dental restoration.
RAMPANT CARIES Widespread and rapidly progressing type of dental caries. A suddenly appearing, widespread, rapidly progressing type of caries.
PULPALGIA Sensitivity of the pulp to pain. Pain in the pulp of the tooth
PULPITIS Inflammation of the pulp of the tooth.
PERICORONITIS Inflammation around the gingival flap of a partially erupted tooth, particularly a third molar.
PERIODONTAL MEMBRANE The ligament (membrane) is the attachment fibers of the tooth to the alveolar bone. A system of collagenous connective tissue fibers that connect the root of a tooth to its alveolus. The tissues that support and anchor the tooth in its socket.
PERIAPICAL INFECTION Extension of infection through the pulp and beyond the apex. INFECTION AROUND THE APEX
PERIODONTAL INFECTION Infection and inflammation around the tooth
GINGIVITIS Disease involving the gingival tissue surrounding the teeth Inflammation of the gingival tissues, marked by red, swollen, and/or bleeding gums; caused by buildup of plaque and calculus
PERIODONTITIS Disease involving the supporting structures surrounding the tooth, resulting in loss of bone. The formation of periodontal pockets, occurring when margins of the gingiva and periodontal fibers recede and the supporting bone becomes inflamed and destroyed.
Gingivitis v Periodontitis
Causes of Gum Disease Caused from: neglect of oral hygiene – Possible Nutritional deficiencies – Systemic diseases – Hormonal changes – Poor occlusion (need ortho/braces) – Poor fitting dentures or partials
Gingival Irritants Irritants could be: – Toothpicks – used improperly & too often – Toothbrush trauma – brushing incorrectly – Overhanging margin on restorations
A N U G Acute Necrotising Ulcerative Gingivitis – A severe form of periodontal disease involving inflammation of the gingival tissues, severe bleeding of gingival tissues, swollen gums (edema), and a foul odor. – A distinct, recurrent periodontal disease primarily involving the interdental papillae, which undergo necrosis (dying) and ulceration.
HYPEREMIA Abnormal increase in the amount of blood in the vessels of the pulp of the tooth. – HYPER = abnormal and excessive – EMIA = Blood
Warning Signs of Periodontal Disease 1. Tissues that bleed during brushing 2. Soft, swollen & tender gingiva 3. Loose teeth 4. Pus between teeth & gingiva 5. Receding gums 6. Change in fit of dentures or partials 7. Shifting or elongation of teeth 8. Persistent Bad Breath
TMJ - TMD Temporomandibular Joint Temporomandibular Disorder Symptoms: Earache, Headache, Pain in Joint, Clicking sounds when chewing
STAINS EXTRINSIC – Discolorations on the outside of the tooth structure that can be removed by scaling and polishing INTRINSIC – Discolorations, usually permanent, inside the tooth structure
LEUKOPLAKIA White patches – may occur anywhere in the mouth, on the tongue, or inside of cheek – White plaque formed on the oral mucous membrane from surface epithelial cells. – A premalignant surface lesion of the mucosa
ETIOLOGY Study of factors causing disease
MATERIA ALBA Soft deposits on teeth, usually from salivary proteins and by-products Soft, bulky, cottage-cheese-like mass of food debris and bacterial growth that collects in grooves and spaces on teeth, gingiva, and appliances; provides source for plaque development.
CALCULUS Hard, calcified deposit of mineralized plaque that forms on teeth, restorations, and dental appliances; Also called TARTAR (Plaque can calcify in days if left undisturbed.)
RESORPTION The body’s process of removing bone. Loss of structure of bone or tooth.
NURSING BOTTLE MOUTH Nursing bottle caries – dental caries of the maxillary primary teeth caused by the oral retention of milk or formula in the mouth Extensive decay in child’s mouth from liquids in a bottle
Decay Process Factors for dental caries to occur: – Susceptible host – anatomic differences in tooth – Microorganisms – Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus Normal flora – Diet (substrate) – to feed the microbes – Time – needed for disease to occur – (Brushing removes plaque & food debris)