TYPES OF FORESTS: Soft wood 66% of Canada’s forest cover Fir, Pine, Spruce Hard wood 12% of Canada’s forest cover Poplar, Maple, Birch The other 22% are mixed forests containing both coniferous and deciduous trees.
FOREST REGIONS IN CANADA: Boreal Forest Region largest forest region mainly softwood small slow growing trees long winters and low precipitation pulp and paper production (Soft wood is used for house construction and paper making)
FOREST REGIONS IN CANADA cont’d... Taiga Forest Region: coniferous, deciduous, and stunted trees thin soils, cool temperatures, short growing season, and permafrost small parts are logged for pulp and papermaking
FOREST REGIONS IN CANADA cont’d... West Coast Forest Region: the most productive and highest forest in Canada wood is used for lumber, plywood, pulp and paper abundant relief rainfall, average temperatures, and long growing season coniferous trees
FORESTS REGIONS IN CANADA cont’d... Mixed Forest Region: long growing season, abundant rainfall fir and spruce in the north, coniferous and deciduous in the south conifers are used for lumber and pulp and paper hardwoods are used for lumber.
TYPES OF TREE REMOVAL: Clear-cutting: Is the fastest and cheapest logging method, where every tree is removed. Shelterwood logging: Involves clear-cutting part of a forest. Seed-bearing trees are left standing so their seeds can regenerate the logged area.
TYPES OF TREE REMOVAL cont’d... Selective cutting: Is a method, less disruptive to the forest environment, but very costly due to required time and care of the trees. This consists of harvesting only mature trees of the desired size, type and quality.
CANADA’S FOREST PRODUCTS: The two most important products of Canada's forests are lumber, pulp and paper. Lumber (the Industry): BC is the leading plywood producer because of its tall, knot-free, easily unrolled (''peeled'') logs. Pulp and paper: Is found in every province except PEI. Canada is the second largest producer of pulp and paper and the first largest exporter.
Fire is a normal part of the life cycle of forest ecosystems New healthy trees regenerate quickly in the burned forest Sometimes fires are purposely started in a “controlled burn” On average 9500 fires burn 3 million hectares of Canada’s forests each year 48% of all forest fires in Canada are caused by lightening in remote areas 52% of all forest fires caused by people usually occur near settled areas
ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS TO CANADIAN FORESTS: Acid precipitation is a serious problem for forests in Canada Insect pest and disease are negatively affecting forests The spruce budworm, tent caterpillar and gypsy moth in eastern Canada and the pine bark beetle in British Columbia cause millions of dollars worth of damage every year Canadian forests are at risk from “imported” insect pests