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Forests of the World: Economic, Social and Environmental Values Tim White School of Forest Resources and Conservation 138 NZ Hall, UF, IFAS 846-0850;

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Presentation on theme: "Forests of the World: Economic, Social and Environmental Values Tim White School of Forest Resources and Conservation 138 NZ Hall, UF, IFAS 846-0850;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Forests of the World: Economic, Social and Environmental Values Tim White School of Forest Resources and Conservation 138 NZ Hall, UF, IFAS 846-0850; tlwhite@ufl.edu June, 2011

2 Objectives 1.Importance of Forests: Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits 2.Forests of the World Global trends State of the world’s forests Types of forests 3.Forests of Florida 4.Discussion 5.References for Your Use

3 Importance and Benefits from Forests Forests Economic Values Social Values Ecological Values Wood Products Non-Timber Product s Social & Ecological Services Domestic Uses Recreation Aesthetics & Spiritual H 2 O & Soil Amelioration Habitats & Biodiversity Climate Mitigation

4 Objectives 1.Importance of Forests: Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits 2.Forests of the World Global trends State of the world’s forests Types and distribution of forests 3.Forests of Florida 4.Discussion 5.References for Your Use

5 Global Demand for Wood Consumption is Growing Up 1.6% annually (up 60% by 2030) 50/50 for domestic/industrial wood 80% of consumption is for industrial purposes in developed countries 80% of consumption is for domestic use in developing countries Both uses (domestic and industrial) will continue to be important 10,000 products made from wood

6 Global Demand and Supply of Wood World’s population is growing World’s demand for wood is growing World’s area of forests to meet demand is shrinking Forest-to-people ratio: 1960 = 1.2 ha per capita (3 acres/person) 2005 = 0.6 ha per capita (1.5 acres/person) % of 1980 values

7 Non-Wood Forest Products: 150 Products Traded Globally Medicines and herbs Chemicals: Dyes, turpentine, latex … Crafts, fodder, decoratives, other … Edibles: Food, drink, flavors, spices

8 Other Global Forest Values: Demand is Growing!  Recreation: hunting, fishing, hiking  Ecotourism (7% of global tourism)  Ecosystem services  Conservation of biodiversity (11% of world’s forests) Half of all terrestrial carbon is in forests Half of world’s biodiversity lives in TRF Two-thirds of all species live in forests

9 Local Peoples: 350 Million Live in Forests Home, livelihoods, medicines, construction, fodder, etc.

10 Objectives 1.Importance of Forests: Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits 2.Forests of the World Global trends State of the world’s forests Types of forests 3.Forests of Florida 4.Discussion 5.References for Your Use

11 State of the World’s Forests 4 billion ha of forests (10 billion acres) 30% of global land area Important on all continents

12 State of the World’s Forests  Forests grow where climates and soils permit  Current distribution also reflects historical deforestation associated with colonization: Now 50% of original area 9% 47% 11% 33% High Species Richness Low Species Richness

13 Russia, Brazil, Canada, USA and China Where are the Forests? Half of all global forests are in 5 countries Other Russia Brazil Canada USA

14 State of the World’s Forests: Global Deforestation and Degradation Deforestation  30 to 50% loss of total forest area in last 8,000 yrs  Last 50 years  1.2 ha/person in 1960  0.6 ha/person in 2005  Current annual net deforestation  8 million ha (20 million acres)  2/3 of Florida  Roads lead to access Degradation  High grading of valuable timber  Unsustainable harvest levels  Poor practices leading to soil erosion, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Settlement in tropical dry rainforest

15 State of the World’s Forests: Global Deforestation and Reforestation Current deforestation mostly in developing countries Deforestation in TRF could mean extinction of 100 species per day

16 State of the World’s Forests: Mitigating Climate Change World Resources Inc, PAGE, 2000

17 Objectives 1.Importance of Forests: Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits 2.Forests of the World Global trends State of the world’s forests Types of forests 3.Forests of Florida 4.Discussion 5.References for Your Use

18 Types of Forests in the World: Native or Natural Forests 90% of the world’s forests Undisturbed or second- growth Managed or unmanaged 11% of the world’s forests are in reserves: Parks, national forests, wilderness areas, conservation reserves Tropical Rain Forests Temperate Rain Forests National Parks and Forests Native Working Forests

19 Types of Forests in the World: Planted Forests or Plantations Reforestation & afforestation 4% of the world’s forest area Supply 30% of industrial wood Grow faster than native forests Have less biodiversity Half the plantations are for fuelwood Seedling of E. grandis 3.5 yr plantation 6 yr plantation harvest

20 E. grandis: Breeding, Reforestation & Silviculture Natural Range (Red): Coastal NSW & Queensland Exotic Range (Yellow): 10MM ha in > 30 countries Most widley planted tree species

21 Clonal Forestry: First-Cycle Program

22 Clonal Forestry: Mass Selection

23 Clonal Testing: Pure Species & Hybrids

24 Operational Propagation of Tested Clones

25 Crop and Product Uniformity

26 Types of Forests in the World: Other Types of Forests Urban Forests Agroforests Forested Wetlands

27 Types of Forests in the World: Forested Area by Different Types

28 Types of Forests: The World Needs All Types Conservation Reserves Primary Forests Managed Old Growth Forests Intensively Managed Regrowth Forests Plantations Economic Value Ecological Value 11% 5%

29 Objectives 1.Importance of Forests: Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits 2.Forests of the World Global trends State of the world’s forests Types of forests 3.Forests of Florida 4.Discussion 5.References for Your Use

30 Forests in Florida By far, the most important land use: Half of FL land area is forested Mostly in N FL Pastures are distant second (17%) $16 billion/yr industry (#1 “crop”) $8.0 billion/yr for hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing $1.8 billion/yr in recreation and ecotourism at FL parks Pine straw, palmetto, silvopastures Critical ecological services

31 Forests in Florida: Increasing Demands For All Goods & Services Population: 16 million people Fastest-growing state east of MS River 28 new people per hour (400,000/yr) 92% live in urban areas, mostly in S FL Increasing Demands for: Large quantities of high quality water Jobs and products Biomass for energy and fuels Recreation and other social services All ecosystem goods and services

32 Forests in Florida: Urbanization! Decreasing Forest Land Area Losing 40,000 acres per year (mostly to urbanization)  1960: 4 acres of forests per person  2000: 1 acre of forests per person

33 Forests in Florida: Urbanization! Increasing Fragmentation of Rural Forests Increasing WUI (1 out of 5 acres in FL in WUI) Impacting wildlife and bird populations Increasing role of fire Impacts of rural development Increasing Role of Urban Forests Microclimate amelioration Stormwater runoff Recreation Aesthetics Psychological benefits

34 Forests in Florida: Production and Protection Production Forestry Meet demands from fewer acres (timber, fiber, NTP, energy) Increase production efficiency of plantations All in sustainable manner (BMPs, certification, etc) Conservation Programs State buying 2 million acres (1/8 of all forest land) + easements FL already owns more forest land than any other state in south Manifests desire of citizens to support conservation

35 Conclusions: Forests are Important in this World! All types of forests Native forests, plantations, agroforests, urban forests All forest products Timber, paper, medicinals, recreation, hunting, homes All forest practices Preservation, conservation, production, multiple use All forest uses Reserves, family forests, industrial timberlands, city parks, etc. All forest values Social values (recreation, water & soil quality, homes for people) Economic values (products, jobs, direct and indirect impact) Environmental values (C sequestration, habitats, biodiversity)

36 Importance and Benefits from Forests: Need to Understand Human Dimensions to Realize these Benefits Forests Economic Values Social Values Ecological Values Wood Products Non-Timber Product s Social & Ecological Services Domestic Uses Recreation Aesthetics & Spiritual H 2 O & Soil Amelioration Habitats & Biodiversity Climate Mitigation

37 Discussion

38 References and Websites Boyle, J.R. 1999. Planted forests: views and viewpoints. New Forests 17: 5-9. Diesen, Magnus (ed).1998. Economics of the Pulp and Paper Industry. Fapet Oy Publishing, Helsinki, Finland. 186 pp. Earth Trends, World Resources Institute 2007. http://earthtrends.wri.org/ Evans, J. 1992. Plantation forestry in the tropics. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 403p. FAO Forest Assessment 1990. Global synthesis. FAO Paper 124. Rome. 1995. FAO Forest Assessment 1990. Tropical plantations. FAO Paper 128. Rome. 1995. FAO State of the World’s Forests 2007. http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/sofo/en/http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/sofo/en/ FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/003/X9835e/.http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/003/X9835e/ FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/008/a0400e/a0400e00.htmhttp://www.fao.org/DOCREP/008/a0400e/a0400e00.htm Florida’s Forest Resources Plan. I. An Assessment. 2005. http://www.fl-dof.com/plans_support/future_forest_resources.html http://www.fl-dof.com/plans_support/future_forest_resources.html Florida’s Forest Resources Plan. II. Condition and Trends. 2005. http://www.fl-dof.com/plans_support/future_forest_resources.htmlhttp://www.fl-dof.com/plans_support/future_forest_resources.html Forestry Encyclopedia Network. http://www.forestryencyclopedia.net/http://www.forestryencyclopedia.net/ Forestry Figures and Facts. American Forest and Paper Association. http://www.afandpa.org/http://www.afandpa.org/ Fox, T.R. 2000. Sustained productivity in intensively managed plantations. For. Ecol Manage. 138: 202-213. Hagler, R.W. 1996. The global wood fiber equation-- a new world order? Forest Products J. 79:51-54. Hodges, Alan, et al., 2003. Economic impact of the forest industry in Florida. Final Report to the Florida Forestry Association. McLaren, J. (ed) 1999. Issues in Global Timber Supplies. Miller Freeman, San Francisco. 231pp. Sedjo, R.A. 1999. The potential of high-yield plantation forestry for meeting timber needs. New Forests 17: 339-359. Sedjo, R.A. 2001.The role of forest plantations in the world’s future timber supply. Forest Chronicle 77:221-225. Sedjo, R.A and D. Botkin. 1997. Using forest plantations to spare natural forests. Environment 39: 14-20. Spears, J. 1998. Forests at the crossroads: Environmental challenges for Canada in the 21st century. Forestry Chronicle 74: 812-821. Sutton, W.R.J. 1999. Does the world need planted forests? New Zealand J Forestry 44: 24-29. World Conservation Union (IUCN). http://www.iucn.org/http://www.iucn.org/ World Resources 1994-1995. Oxford Press. 400p


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