Presentation on theme: "Plant Phenolics and Human Health: from Cranberries to Curry Leaf Nutritional Physiology: how do the plants we eat alter the functions of our body? Or Do."— Presentation transcript:
Plant Phenolics and Human Health: from Cranberries to Curry Leaf Nutritional Physiology: how do the plants we eat alter the functions of our body? Or Do They?? Nutritional Physiology studies are VERY relevant to selective breeding programs, GMOs and Public Health decisions! c Ted Wilson, Ph.D. Department of Biology, Winona, MN
Plant Phenolics are good for us...”so what”. Why do plants make +6,000 phenolics?
What do phenolics do for plants? Taste- bitter taste in romaine lettuce keeps cows, bugs and kids away. UV Light (sunscreen)- protects plant DNA from the sun. Antioxidants- protect DNA in the seed germ from oxidation (watermelon seeds grown from egyptian mummy tombs) Colors- attract birds to a raspberry when it is ripe, and announce that cranberries are tart/not good to eat Provide toxins against fungi (plants can’t make antibodies like we do) Provide plant phenolics can mimic human hormones affect human cells as well (soy)
Health correlations between the top and bottom quartiles of human phenolic intake Top Quartile of Phenolic Intake: – Lowest Cardiovascular disease risk – Lowest Cancer risk – Longer life/Higher Quality of life Bottom Quartile of Phenolic Intake: – Highest Cardiovascular disease risk – Highest Cancer risk – Shorter life/Lower Quality of life Phenolic intake is correlated with fruit and vegetable intake, BUT. – Not all plants have the same color, taste, quality – Not all plants have the same phenolic contents – Not all plant parts are the same either! VIP: Not all plants have the same effect on human health Hertog et al. Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993; 342:1007-1011.
EGCG may prevent oxidative injury to LDL, DNA and cellular proteins. EGCG in green tea may suppress tumor growth by preventing angiogenesis. EGCG may promote selective apoptosis (cell death) within tumors. EGCG in green tea may inhibit the growth of bacteria, such as H. pylori in the stomach. EGCG may protect against potential carcinogenes such as UV radiation, and smoking. Why is green tea good your you? Its probably a phenolic called (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate ! JR Carlson et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007; 82:725-32.
How can dietary phenolics affect our physiological systems and our health? Phenolics can provide the following activities: Antioxidant-cardiovascular prevention Antioxidant-cancer prevention Improve lipid profile Improved glycemic response Vasodilate (open) blood vessels in heart Prevent blood clotting in heart Protect against urinary tract infection Serve as phytoestrogens-regulate growth/cancer Much much more……
ANTIOXIDANTS Cardiovascular disease protection Cancer Protection
Chemical structure of selected phenolics: Proanthocyanidins A- PAC monomers B- PAC dimers C- PAC trimers Flavonols D-myricetin-3-galactoside E- myricetin-3-arabinofuranoside F- quercetin-3-galactoside G- quercetin-3-glucoside H- quercetin-3-rhamnoside I- quercetin-3-benzoylgalactoside Anthocyanidins Cholesterol Backbone for estrogen and testosterone…see a similarity? What are some cranberry phenolic compounds?
Cranberry juice dose-dependently protects LDL against Cu++ induced oxidation. Wilson et al, J. Nutra. Funct. Med. Foods. 1999; 2:5-14. Wilson et al. Life Sciences. 1998; 62:PL381-PL386.
Different phenolic compounds provide different amounts of biological activities. Cranberry flavonols and proanthocyanidins are associated with significant inhibition of Cu++ mediated LDL oxidation (lag-time at 234 nm) but not the anthocyanidin portion of the phenolic content. Singh et al, Food Chemistry. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.062
English walnuts have a richer phenolic profile than black walnuts, as a result they are more biologically active with respect to antioxidant capacity.
More phenolics mean that English walnut provides better antioxidant protection!
$$Which solvent is best for isolating Curry Leaf antioxidant activity? Acetone = $$ Wilson et al. FASEB J 2009; 23:901.3. Antioxidant activity of curry flavonols extends the LDL oxidation lag-time (A 234 nm; hours) following cupric-ion mediated oxidation. Extract 0.05 µg/mL0.50 µg/mL5.00 µg/mL 80% Acetone 1.64 ± 0.801.81 ± 0.874.21 ± 0.64 [A] 80%MeOH 1.41 ± 0.411.51 ± 0.46 3.61 ± 0.98 [AB] 100%MeOH 1.48 ± 0.501.42 ± 0.42 3.34 ± 1.09 [AB] 80%EtOH 1.63 ± 0.681.78 ± 0.813.20 ± 1.46 [B] Cu ++ Control 1.55 ± 0.69 Quercetin 0.075µM 1.32 ± 0.05 Quercetin 0.375µM 4.39 ± 0.38 [A]
Eggplant pulp antioxidant activity is correlated with 5-caffeoylquinic acid and total polyphenolic content. Organically produced eggplant may be healthier? Singh, Luthria, Wilson, Vorsa, et al. Food Chemistry. 2009 114, 955-961
Eggplant skin contains more phenolics than pulp. Skin phenolics promote antioxidant capacity and organic growing may improve health benefits. Olson, et al. FASEB J. 2008 22:890.22.
Soybean products are rich in phenolics called “isoflavones” that are bases for development of synthetic antioxidants and drugs with pseudoestrogen functions. (prostate and breast cancer applications
Soy isoflavones are potent antioxidants that could improve nutrition or pharmacologic development.
How do folks make money from plants? They “hype” something They “twist” the truth They “give” it for free They “sell” it They “RARELY” want to test it however…. Resveratrol is a great plant example… http://www.resveratrolhealthbenefits.net/
Resveratrol….whats the hype it does not prevent heart disease! Why buy at GNC? Resveratrol is a phenolic compound in Red Wine PubMed Aug 2009): listed 2937 peer-reviewed studies Most publications suggest a positive effect in vitro Only two heart studies were in vivo, and none were long-term human studies. We put rabbits on an atherogenic without and with this proposed red wine derived “Heart Holy Grail” (1 mg/BID) and hypothesized protection from atherosclerosis: Conclusion: You don’t want to buy resveratrol from GNC or other similar stores!
Simple Slide: MoreRed=more Atherosclerosis Drink Red Wine, but Don’t ingest pure Resveratrol! With Resveratrol Without Resveratrol Really Bad Not As Bad
Diabetes, Fruits, Vegetables and Mortality Diabetics (especially type 2) tend to be in lowest quartile of fruit and vegetable consumption. High carbohydrate foods (fruits, vegetables, juices) are often negatively perceived and associated with hyperglycemia, obesity and diabetes. Persons with the lowest quartile of fruit/vegetable consumption are in highest quartile of risk for mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. Type 2 diabetics have very high rates of morbidity from kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer or complications. How do we improve diabetic fruit/vegetable consumption? Wilson, NJ Temple, GA Bray, M Stuble-Boyl, eds. “Nutrition Guide for Physicians”. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, N.J.
GLYCEMIC RESPONSE How do you increase fruit and vegetable consumption and health? How do you do this for a diabetic and not deleteriously increase blood glucose?
Glycemic responses of healthy college aged persons drinking two servings of CBJ. Phenolics may explain different curves? Wilson et al, J Med Food. 2008; 11:46-54
What is the glycemic response of Type 2 diabetics consuming normal or unsweetened cranberry juice? Wilson et al, J Food Science. 2008, 73:H241-245.
What sweetened dried cranberry (craisin) products are best for a diabetic? Wilson et al, FASEB J 2009 Abstract # 6285
Thompson seedless grapes become Sun dried or Golden (shed dried) raisins. Sun-Maid wanted to know if processing method phenolic profile. Answer: YES! Phenolic Compound: µg/g wet wt Sample ID: Myricetin-3-galactoside Myricetin-3-glucoside Quercetin-3-glucuronide Rutinoside Quercetin-3-glucoside Linarin Kaempferol-3-O-caffeoylate Isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside Quercetin Kaempferol Total Phenolics Thompson Seedless #1 0.090.032.033.1732.90.320.155.020.450.04 44.2 Thompson Seedless #2 0.140.033.505.1337.30.46 3.460.450.05 51.0 Zante Currants 0.130.260.891.1026.11.472.9225.61.030.84 60.3 Sun Dried Raisins 0.21 0.610.7120.90.510.1712.52.860.55 39.1 Golden Raisins 0.312.743.693.9478.01.0610.3.0828.1.84 129.1
Phenolics and Heart disease protection -IMPROVED LIPID PROFILES Reduce heart arterial hardening -VASODILATORS Improve blood flow to heart -BLOOD CLOT PREVENTION Prevent blood clots in heart
Cranberry juice phenolics (240 ml- twice daily-28 days) lower human total and LDL cholesterol, good for diabetics! Caron et al, FASEB J. 2005; 19: A1009.
Oxidative stress in diabetics prevents arterial vasodilation causing hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Cranberry juice vasodilates (open-up) isolated rat arteries by stimulating nitric oxide synthesis from the endothelium. Choice for Angina? Nitro Pill or Cranberry Juice? Maher et al. J. Med Foods. 2000; 3:141-147.
Diabetics are prone to increased formation of thrombi (blood clots) and cranberry juice consumption appears to inhibit blood clotting. Wilson and Marley. FASEB J 2001; 15:A286.
Tomato consumption protects against heart disease. Is this because they inhibit blood clotting? Perhaps. J. EINSPAR, K. RAUSCH, B. WILSON, E. ZINSER, E. DUNCANSON, T. EHALT, S. FRITCH, L. LIEN, CAPSTONE PROJECTS, SPRING/FALL 2003 ADP (3mM) Platelet aggregation response to 1:50 dilution tomato extract from two different locations.
Several people and organizations have helped make this on going cranberry research possible. Funding Support From: Ocean Spray Cranberries Inc Sun Maid Growers Inc. Decas Cranberry Products Inc. Cranberry Institute Wisc. Cranberry Board U.S. Department of Agriculture L21 Fund Winona State Univ Northland Cranberries Inc WSU Foundation research grants WSU Office of Academic Affairs – Travel and Research Grants AD Caron JR Carlson EJ Carrell (PhD) J Cheong E Duncanson MD T Ehalt (PhD) J Einspar PA Michelle Freeman S Fritch MD CD Goettl OD D Harbin MD AJ Kalk GM Kastello PhD BC Kautza MD KM Kittleson L Kobs Sara Landin L Lein (MD) MC Leveranz PJ Limburg MD M Linedll L Mahoney MD JC Marley MD H Mataczynski SL Meyers EF Morcomb (MD) Rachel Olson TA Niskala JP Porcari PhD R Prior PhD FR Ragsdale PhD CM Roe PJ Schaaf TP Schmidt (MD) SJ Staupe MD AP Singh PhD HM Stephaniak MD S Torbenson N Vorsa PhD B Wilson WJ Zoeller
Publications Cited: Peer Reviewed Publications: JR Carlson, BA Bauer, A Vincent, PJ Limburg, T Wilson. Reading the tea leaves: anticarcinogenic properties of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007; 82:725-32. BA Cassady, NL Charboneau, EM Brys, KA Crouse, DC Beitz, T Wilson. Comparison of low-carbohydrate diets rich in either red meat or poultry, fish and shellfish on weight loss and plasma lipids. Nutrition & Metabolism 2007, 4:23 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-23 AP Singh, T Wilson, AJ Kalk, J Cheong, NVorsa. Isolation of specific cranberry flavonoids for biological activity assessment. Food Chemistry. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.062 AP Singh, DL Luthria, T Wilson, N Vorsa, V Singh, GS Banuelos, S Pasakdee. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of eggplant pulp. Food Chemistry. 2009 114, 955- 961. T Wilson, SL Meyers, AP Singh, N Vorsa. Favorable Glycemic Response of Type 2 Diabetics to Low Calorie Cranberry Juice. Journal of Food Science. 2008, 73:H241-245. T Wilson, NJ Temple, GA Bray, M Stuble-Boyl, eds. “Nutrition Guide for Physicians”. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, N.J. Manuscript undergoing review (May 27, 2009). 38 Chapters, 380 pages. Wilson T, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Goettl CD, Kittleson KM, Roe CM, Kastello GM, Ragsdale FR: Human Glycemic Response and Phenolic Content of Unsweetened Cranberry Juice. J Med Food. 2008; 11:46-54. T Wilson, NJ Temple, eds. “Beverages in Health and Nutrition”. Humana Press Inc, Totowa, N.J. January, 2005. 28 Chapters and 427 pages. T Wilson, H March, WJ Banz, S Adler, CY Meyers, TA Winters, MA Maher. Antioxidant effects of phyto- and synthetic-esterogens on Cu ++ -induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in vitro. Life Sciences. 2002; 70:2287-2297. MA Maher, H Mataczynski, HM Stephaniak, T Wilson. Cranberry juice induces nitric oxide dependent vasodilation and transiently reduces blood pressure in conscious and anaesthetized rats. J. Medicinal Foods. 2000; 3:141-147. T Wilson, JP Porcari, MA Maher. Cranberry juice inhibits metal- and non-metal initiated oxidation of low density lipoprotein. J. Nutra. Funct. Med. Foods. 1999; 2:5-14. T Wilson, JP Porcari, D Harbin. Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation. Life Sciences. 1998; 62:PL381-PL386. Abstracts: AP Singh, S Shah, MS Torres, N Vorsa, T Wilson. Raisin, currant and Thompson Seedless grape phenolic compound characterization using LC-MS-MS-ESI with product ion, precursor-ion, neutral–loss analysis and selected reaction monitoring. FASEB J. 2009; 23:718.3 T Wilson, AP Singh, MM Freeman, JR Rorabaugh, N Vorsa, P Fitschen, MA Maher. Ability of English and black walnut phenolics to inhibit cupric-ion induced LDL oxidation in vitro and following human nut consumption. FASEB J 2009; 23:962.3. T Wilson, AP Singh, MM Freeman, V Singh, RM Olson, N Vorsa, S Somasundaram, D Luthria. Characterization of curry leaf polyphenolics and their antioxidant activity. FASEB J 2009; 23:901.3. T Wilson, EF Morcomb, TP Schmidt, JL Luebke, EJ Carrell, MC Leveranz, L Kobs, AP Singh, N Vorsa, PJ Limburg. Glycemic response of type 2 diabetics to sweetened dried cranberries. FASEB J 2009 Abstract # 6285. AD Caron, BC Kautza, T Wilson. Cholesterol Lowering Effects of a Low Calorie Cranberry Juice FASEB J. 2005; 19: A1009. T. Wilson, SJ Staupe, TA Niskala. Cranberry Sauce Antioxidant Activity. Experimental Biology. Late Breaking Abstracts, 2003, Abstract #83530. T Wilson, JC Marley. Effects of Cranberry Juice Consumption on Platelet Aggregation. FASEB J 2001; 15:A286. T Wilson, WJ Zoeller, PJ Schaaf, MA Maher. Cultivar and source Dependent Variation in the Ability of Cranberry Juice to Protect Human LDL from Oxidation in vitro. FASEB J. 2000; 14:A269.
Dietary cholesterol is “bad” …..right? Or is it? after 28 days of Red Meat (RM) vs Poultry/Fish (PFS) CalCholest (mg/day) SFA (g/day) PUFA (g/day) MUFA (g/day) Total Fat% RM14100±155333 ± 39 2 32 ± 5 3 9.8±2.0 4 32 ±452 ± 2.7 PFS13400±30630 ± 9525 ± 2.016 ± 1.530 ±1.852 ± 2.4
Dietary cholesterol is “bad” …..right? Or is it? In short, most humans resists change within the omnivore diet very robustly! Day Triglycerides (mmol/L) Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) RM-01.04 ± 0.174.78 ± 0.352.84 ± 0.261.50 ± 0.13 RM-280.83 ± 0.114.47 ± 0.342.79 ± 0.221.31 ± 0.12 RM-Δ-0.21 ± 0.19-0.30 ± 0.15-0.05 ± 0.14-0.19 ± 0.05 PFS-01.27 ±0.135.10 ±0.313.18 ± 0.351.30 ± 0.14 PFS-280.87 ± 0.08 2 4.95 ± 0.313.33 ± 0.271.13 ± 0.10 PFS-Δ-0.39 ± 0.10-0.15 ± 0.230.15 ± 0.21-0.17 ± 0.08 1 RM, Red meat (RM; n=5); Poultry/fish/shellfish (PFS; n=7) mean±SEM BA Cassady, et al. Nutr & Metab. 2007, 4:23 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-23.