2Initial Activity (Ch 7)1. The rain shadow effect refers to a. more light on the windward side of mountain ranges b. more moisture on the leeward side of mountain ranges c. moister conditions on the windward side of mountain ranges d. drier conditions on the windward side of mountain ranges e. less light available on the leeward side of mountain ranges 2. Scientists expect human-enhanced global warming to do all of the following except a. alter precipitation patterns b. shift areas where we can grow crops c. raise average sea levels d. lower sea levels e. shift areas where plants and animals can be found
4Initial Activity (Ch 7)3. Which of the following statements about the earth's winds is not true? a. Wind circulates moisture. b. Wind circulates plant nutrients. c. Wind increases global warming gases. d. Wind stimulates algal blooms in the Pacific. e. Wind carries banned pesticides into the U.S. 4. Which of the following is a local area's short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity? a. climate b. weather c. biomes d. ecosystems e. currents
6Initial Activity (Ch 7)5. Prevailing winds are the result of what? a. temperature b. direction the sun strikes the earth c. rotation of the earth on its axis d. ocean currents e. sun storms 6. Which of the following statements about oceans is not true? a. Ocean currents redistribute heat from the sun. b. Most of the heat absorbed by the ocean air is absorbed in tropical waters. c. Irregularly shaped continents cause currents to flow in circular patterns. d. Differences in density of warm and cold seawater set up warm and cold currents. e. Oceans currents flow counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere.
11Initial Activity (Ch 7)7. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas? a. carbon monoxide b. water vapor c. carbon dioxide d. methane e. nitrous oxide 8. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is a. soil type b. topography c. magnetic fields d. climate e. tidal activity
13The Initial Activity is on a piece of notebook paper today. 1. What did you observe about how our population changed over time when we did the Population Circle? 2. After we started counting, who was the first person to join the circle? What number did he/she have? From the start, how many years did it take to add 250 million people to the Earth? 3. Towards the end of the simulation, how long was it taking to add 250 million people to the Earth? 4. Based on what you saw happening by the end of the simulation, how do you think this activity would be different if we came back in five years and did it again? 5. What would happen if we continued to grow at this rate?
14Answers:1. It took a long time to add any people to the Earth. Most of our growth happened in just the past century.2. The first person to join the circle had the number 51. It took 255 years to add 250 million people (51 x 5, or 255 years).3, It took five years or less. Between the numbers 88 and 100, we added at least one person to the Earth with each number called.4. The trend suggests we would need one or two more people for the simulation if we did it five years from now.5. The Earth would become increasingly crowded.
15Initial Activity (Ch 7)9. The two most important factors determining the climate of an area are a. temperature and wind b. temperature and precipitation c. precipitation and light d. light and temperature e. wind and light
17Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 10. Hemp and which other source of pulp require fewer pesticides and yield more pulp per hectare? a. wood b. animal fats c. agricultural residues d. rice straw e. Kenaf 11. All of the following are disadvantages to raising animals in feedlots, except a. Less land use. b. Antibiotic use can increase antibiotic resistance in microbes. c. Produces large amounts of animal wastes. d. Needs large amounts of water. e. Requires large input of fish meal and water.
19Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 12. Which of the following is the big disadvantage of living in a chaparral region? a. too little rain b. fire hazard c. too much rain d. too many venomous snakes e. bothersome rodent populations 13. Which of the following is not an economic service provided by forests? a. mining b. fuelwood c. reduce erosion d. recreation e. lumber
20Answers:BCWhat is a Chaparral? A chaparral is a shrubby coastal area that has hot dry summers and mild, cool, rainy winters. Chaparrals consist of regions of tall, dense shrubs with leathery leaves or needles; the shrubs are interspersed with some woodland (scrub oak). The total annual rainfall in a chaparral ranges from 15 to 40 inches per year ( cm). The word chaparral comes from "chaparro," which means scrub oak in Spanish. Chaparrals are also called Mediterranean scrub, shrublands, or scrublands. Chaparrals are located in bands between 30 and 40 degrees N and 30 and 40 degrees S of the equator.
21Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 14. Which of the following is not a method of grassland restoration? a. suppression of growth of unwanted invader plants by herbicide spraying b. rotation of water holes and salt blocks c. use of portable fencing to confine cattle to ungrazed areas d. removal of native grasses to reduce growth e. protection of riparian areas from overgrazing 15. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling of matter, and a. the destruction of energy b. one-way flow of energy c. the consumption of matter d. one-way flow of matter e. cycling of energy
22Answers:DBri·par·i·an [ri-pair-ee-uhn] adjective 1. of, pertaining to, or situated or dwelling on the bank of a river or other body of water
23Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 16. Large terrestrial regions with similar characteristics are a. populations b. ecosystems c. communities d. habitats e. biomes 17. With industrialized food production, for every one unit of energy put on the table, how many units of nonrenewable fossil fuel energy are required to produce it? a. 10 b c. 5 d. 100 e. 0.5
25Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 18. Tropical deforestation results from all of the following excepta. povertyb. need for space to graze cattlec. subsistence farmers trying to grow food to survived. establishment of vast plantations for soybeans and oil palme. government taxes on timber harvesting 19. Which of the following is not true of tree plantations?a. They are usually clear cut when sufficiently mature.b. They can return a fast profit.c. They are biologically highly diverse.d. The trees are often used for paper or reconstituted wood substitute.e. The trees are uniformly aged.
27Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 20. Adding water until the water table rises and envelops the deep roots of plants resulting in a loss of productivity, ultimately killing them, is called a. desertification b. soil erosion c. overgrazing d. salinization e. waterlogging 21. Of the total amount of solar energy intercepted by the earth, what percentage actually reaches the earth's surface? (p.56) a. 1% b. 67% c. 20% d. 90% e. 33%
29Initial Activity (Ch 7 & 10) 22. How many children, mainly in Africa and Southeast Asia, do not get enough Vitamin A? a. 100,000, ,000,000 b. 40,000,000-50,000,000 c. 120,000, ,000,000 d. 25,000,000-35,000,000 e. 60,000,000-75,000, India once planted 30,000 varieties of rice; now most of the rice comes from how many varieties? a. 10 b. 25 c. 3 d. 5 e. 1
31Initial Activity (Ch. 7 & 10) 24. In the United States, how much of the original topsoil is gone? a. 10% b. 50% c. 15% d. 25% e. 33% 25. Four of the following are measures to restore ecosystems; one is not. Choose the one that is not. a. creating artificial ecosystems b. restoration c. replacement d. secondary succession e. rehabilitation