Presentation on theme: "Introduction What is my expectation? What is the content?"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction What is my expectation? What is the content? How is the evaluation?When is the tutorial and PBL?
2Dr. Jady Hassim “a journey into the land of the legal elements” Land Law 1Dr. Jady Hassim“a journey into the land of the legal elements”
3MALAYSIAN TORRENS SYSTEM See how these systems regulate land matters… GENERAL HISTORY ANDMALAYSIAN TORRENS SYSTEMSee how these systems regulate land matters…
4Land is owned by the Ruler, who cultivate the land keeps the land. History of Land Law in MalaysiaMalay Customary LawLand is owned by the Ruler, who cultivate the land keeps the land.Adat Perpatih - matriarchal (N.9) and Adat Temenggung – patriarchal (Hindu principles and then Islam) prevailed – s. 4 NLC.Sali Binti Hj Salleh v Achik Alias Bachik Enot  MLJ 14Hj Hussin Hj Matsom v Maheran Hj Hohamed Tahir  MLJ 116Law and custom in Sabah and Sarawak applied to members of each race.Nor Anak Ngawai v Borneo Pulp Plantation  6 MLJ 241Certain aspects of Indonesian customary law of succession were also recognized.Ara Bte Aman v Superintendent of Lands and Mines  1 MLJ 208.
5History of Land Law in Malaysia British InterventionIntroduced Deed System in 1786 when Penang was occupied by East Indian Company; Malacca in 1824; other states in 1879 (Perak-1979; Selangor 1882;N ; Pahang-1889).Regina v Willans (1885) 3 Ky 16Sir Benson Maxwell, “I am therefore, of opinion that law introduced into Malacca by the Second Charter of Justice is the law of England as it stood in 1826…”Deeds system originally based on Labuan Ordinance for the Registration of Titles to Land (1849).Labuan separate settlement (part of Singapore and Colony of British North Borneo)In 1963 the colony became the state of Sabah in the Federation of Malaysia.This Ordinance influenced by the Straits Land Act 1839 (Singapore) & drafted by Hugh Low.Ong Cheng Neo v Yeap Cheah Neo (1872) Kyshe 326, Privy Council held that “the law of England must be taken to be the governing law. So far as it is applicable to the circumstances of the place court held that the land was wholly inhabited when the British arrived, thus the English law should be applicable”.
6Early Land Law in Each States – Land Rules (1) Straits Settlement History of Land Law in MalaysiaEarly Land Law in Each States – Land Rules(1) Straits SettlementPenang – Fatimah v Logan (1871) 1 Ky 234Malacca- Moraiss v De Souza (1882) 1 Ky 27(2) The Federated Malay StatesNegeri Sembilan – Ong Tin v The Seremban Motor Garage (1917) 1 FMSLR 308Pahang - Tengku Hj. Jaafar v Govt of Pahang  2 MLJ 74Perak - Shaik Abdul Latif v Shaik Elias Bux (1915) 1 FMSLR 204Selangor - Woon Ngee Yew v Ng Yoon Thai  MLJ Rep. 37(3) The Unfederated Malays StatesJohor – Quah Hong Lian Neo v Seow Teong Teck  MLJ 161KedahKelantan – Wok v Fatimah  MLJ 35PerlisTerengganu(4) BorneoSabahSarawak
7Your task for Tutorial: Illustrate early land law in each State of the Federation up to 1880s.
8Torrens System in Malaysia (General Overview) HistoryIntroduction in AustraliaThe Merchant Shipping Act 1854 Australian Real Property Act 1858The Labuan Ordinance 1849 (Deeds System) General Land Regulations 1889Purpose and EffectTitle by registration – Frazer v Walker  1 AC 569A new system of convenyancing or dealing with interests and estates of land (however, not all principles has been adopted, example in Sabah, no provision for indefeasibility – Borneo Housing Mortgage Finance Bhd v Time Engineering Bhd  2 MLJ 12.The Main FeaturesIndefeasibilityCompulsory registration of all dealingsSystem of caveats to protect registered proprietorsCharge (x mortgage)The Form of Torrens....in Peninsular Malaysia – through NLC 1965..in Penang & Malacca – through NLC (Penang & Malacca Titles) Act 1963..in Sabah – through Sabah Land Ordinance 1930 (registrations and caveats, x indefeasibility)..in Sarawak – through Sarawak Land Code 1958
9How Torrens System evolved into NLC 1965? Early Stage: Torrens System in MalaysiaHow Torrens System evolved into NLC 1965?Early Stage:Enacted: General Land Regulations (Perak , Selangor , N. Sembilan  and Pahang )Followed By: Registration of Titles Regulations (Selangor, Perak & Pahang  and N. Sembilan .Enacted all in one enactment for all states: Land Enactment 1897Two uniform laws for all states: FMS Land Enactment 1911 (dealt with registration of lands less than 100 acres in Mukim Register) and FMS Registration of Titles Enactment 1911 (dealt with registration of land exceeding 100 acres in town and country land)Amended by: Land Code 1928At the same time, UFMS still apply their Land EnactmentsExample Johor Land Enactment 1910, Kedah Land Enactment 1906, Kelantan Land Enactment 1938 and Terengganu Land Enactment Malacca and Penang still apply English Deeds System.After Federation of Malaya (formed in 1948)The new draft of National Land Code (NLC) to achieve uniformity for all come into force on 1st January NLC (Penang and Malacca Titles Act 1963 was also enacted as part of the Torrens System.
10Issues on Torrens System: the applicability of English land law. Torrens System in MalaysiaIssues on Torrens System: the applicability of English land law.Whether NLC permits the application of equity relating to English law to land matters.Haji Abdul Rahman v Mohamed Hassan  AC 209Malayan United Finance Bhd v Tay Lay Soon  1 MLJ 5042.Section 6 of Civil Law Act prohibits the application of English law and equity in land matters.Devi v Francis  2 MLJ 169Chin Choy v Collector of Stamp Duties  2 MLJ 473. Section 206(3) provides statutory authority for the application of equity into land matters.Templeton v Low Yat Holdings Sdn Bhd  1 MLJ 4434. NLC is a complete and comprehensive code governing land matters. There is no room for England law .United Malayan Banking Corporation Bhd v Pemungut Hasil Tanah, Kota Tinggi  2 MLJ 875. Unless otherwise provided…Pemungut Hasil Tanah, Kota Tinggi v United Malayan Banking Corporation Bhd  2 MLJ 264(Detail discussion: Teo et al., Land Law in Malaysia: Cases & Commentary, 2nd Ed., 1995.)