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Presentation on theme: "What is my expectation? What is the content? How is the evaluation? When is the tutorial and PBL? What is my expectation? What is the content? How is the."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is my expectation? What is the content? How is the evaluation? When is the tutorial and PBL? What is my expectation? What is the content? How is the evaluation? When is the tutorial and PBL? Introduction

2 Dr. Jady Hassim “a journey into the land of the legal elements” Land Law 1

3 GENERAL HISTORY AND MALAYSIAN TORRENS SYSTEM GENERAL HISTORY AND MALAYSIAN TORRENS SYSTEM

4 History of Land Law in Malaysia Malay Customary Law Land is owned by the Ruler, who cultivate the land keeps the land. Adat Perpatih - matriarchal (N.9) and Adat Temenggung – patriarchal (Hindu principles and then Islam) prevailed – s. 4 NLC. Sali Binti Hj Salleh v Achik Alias Bachik Enot [1941] MLJ 14 Hj Hussin Hj Matsom v Maheran Hj Hohamed Tahir [1946] MLJ 116 Law and custom in Sabah and Sarawak applied to members of each race. Nor Anak Ngawai v Borneo Pulp Plantation [2001] 6 MLJ 241 Certain aspects of Indonesian customary law of succession were also recognized. Ara Bte Aman v Superintendent of Lands and Mines [1975] 1 MLJ 208. Malay Customary Law Land is owned by the Ruler, who cultivate the land keeps the land. Adat Perpatih - matriarchal (N.9) and Adat Temenggung – patriarchal (Hindu principles and then Islam) prevailed – s. 4 NLC. Sali Binti Hj Salleh v Achik Alias Bachik Enot [1941] MLJ 14 Hj Hussin Hj Matsom v Maheran Hj Hohamed Tahir [1946] MLJ 116 Law and custom in Sabah and Sarawak applied to members of each race. Nor Anak Ngawai v Borneo Pulp Plantation [2001] 6 MLJ 241 Certain aspects of Indonesian customary law of succession were also recognized. Ara Bte Aman v Superintendent of Lands and Mines [1975] 1 MLJ 208.

5 History of Land Law in Malaysia British Intervention Introduced Deed System in 1786 when Penang was occupied by East Indian Company; Malacca in 1824; other states in 1879 (Perak-1979; Selangor 1882; N ; Pahang-1889). Regina v Willans (1885) 3 Ky 16 Sir Benson Maxwell, “I am therefore, of opinion that law introduced into Malacca by the Second Charter of Justice is the law of England as it stood in 1826…” Deeds system originally based on Labuan Ordinance for the Registration of Titles to Land (1849). Labuan separate settlement (part of Singapore and Colony of British North Borneo) In 1963 the colony became the state of Sabah in the Federation of Malaysia. This Ordinance influenced by the Straits Land Act 1839 (Singapore) & drafted by Hugh Low. Ong Cheng Neo v Yeap Cheah Neo (1872) Kyshe 326, Privy Council held that “the law of England must be taken to be the governing law. So far as it is applicable to the circumstances of the place court held that the land was wholly inhabited when the British arrived, thus the English law should be applicable”. British Intervention Introduced Deed System in 1786 when Penang was occupied by East Indian Company; Malacca in 1824; other states in 1879 (Perak-1979; Selangor 1882; N ; Pahang-1889). Regina v Willans (1885) 3 Ky 16 Sir Benson Maxwell, “I am therefore, of opinion that law introduced into Malacca by the Second Charter of Justice is the law of England as it stood in 1826…” Deeds system originally based on Labuan Ordinance for the Registration of Titles to Land (1849). Labuan separate settlement (part of Singapore and Colony of British North Borneo) In 1963 the colony became the state of Sabah in the Federation of Malaysia. This Ordinance influenced by the Straits Land Act 1839 (Singapore) & drafted by Hugh Low. Ong Cheng Neo v Yeap Cheah Neo (1872) Kyshe 326, Privy Council held that “the law of England must be taken to be the governing law. So far as it is applicable to the circumstances of the place court held that the land was wholly inhabited when the British arrived, thus the English law should be applicable”.

6 History of Land Law in Malaysia Early Land Law in Each States – Land Rules (1) Straits Settlement Penang – Fatimah v Logan (1871) 1 Ky 234 Malacca- Moraiss v De Souza (1882) 1 Ky 27 (2) The Federated Malay States Negeri Sembilan – Ong Tin v The Seremban Motor Garage (1917) 1 FMSLR 308 Pahang - Tengku Hj. Jaafar v Govt of Pahang [1987] 2 MLJ 74 Perak - Shaik Abdul Latif v Shaik Elias Bux (1915) 1 FMSLR 204 Selangor - Woon Ngee Yew v Ng Yoon Thai [1941] MLJ Rep. 37 (3) The Unfederated Malays States Johor – Quah Hong Lian Neo v Seow Teong Teck [1936] MLJ 161 Kedah Kelantan – Wok v Fatimah [1964] MLJ 35 Perlis Terengganu (4) Borneo Sabah Sarawak Early Land Law in Each States – Land Rules (1) Straits Settlement Penang – Fatimah v Logan (1871) 1 Ky 234 Malacca- Moraiss v De Souza (1882) 1 Ky 27 (2) The Federated Malay States Negeri Sembilan – Ong Tin v The Seremban Motor Garage (1917) 1 FMSLR 308 Pahang - Tengku Hj. Jaafar v Govt of Pahang [1987] 2 MLJ 74 Perak - Shaik Abdul Latif v Shaik Elias Bux (1915) 1 FMSLR 204 Selangor - Woon Ngee Yew v Ng Yoon Thai [1941] MLJ Rep. 37 (3) The Unfederated Malays States Johor – Quah Hong Lian Neo v Seow Teong Teck [1936] MLJ 161 Kedah Kelantan – Wok v Fatimah [1964] MLJ 35 Perlis Terengganu (4) Borneo Sabah Sarawak

7 Your task for Tutorial: Illustrate early land law in each State of the Federation up to 1880s.

8 Torrens System in Malaysia (General Overview) History Introduction in Australia The Merchant Shipping Act 1854  Australian Real Property Act 1858 The Labuan Ordinance 1849 (Deeds System)  General Land Regulations 1889 History Introduction in Australia The Merchant Shipping Act 1854  Australian Real Property Act 1858 The Labuan Ordinance 1849 (Deeds System)  General Land Regulations 1889 Purpose and Effect Title by registration – Frazer v Walker [1967] 1 AC 569 A new system of convenyancing or dealing with interests and estates of land (however, not all principles has been adopted, example in Sabah, no provision for indefeasibility – Borneo Housing Mortgage Finance Bhd v Time Engineering Bhd [1996] 2 MLJ 12. Purpose and Effect Title by registration – Frazer v Walker [1967] 1 AC 569 A new system of convenyancing or dealing with interests and estates of land (however, not all principles has been adopted, example in Sabah, no provision for indefeasibility – Borneo Housing Mortgage Finance Bhd v Time Engineering Bhd [1996] 2 MLJ 12. The Main Features Indefeasibility Compulsory registration of all dealings System of caveats to protect registered proprietors Charge (x mortgage) The Main Features Indefeasibility Compulsory registration of all dealings System of caveats to protect registered proprietors Charge (x mortgage) The Form of Torrens....in Peninsular Malaysia – through NLC in Penang & Malacca – through NLC (Penang & Malacca Titles) Act in Sabah – through Sabah Land Ordinance 1930 (registrations and caveats, x indefeasibility)..in Sarawak – through Sarawak Land Code 1958 The Form of Torrens....in Peninsular Malaysia – through NLC in Penang & Malacca – through NLC (Penang & Malacca Titles) Act in Sabah – through Sabah Land Ordinance 1930 (registrations and caveats, x indefeasibility)..in Sarawak – through Sarawak Land Code 1958

9 Torrens System in Malaysia How Torrens System evolved into NLC 1965? Early Stage: Enacted: General Land Regulations (Perak [1879], Selangor [1882], N. Sembilan [1887] and Pahang [1888]) Followed By: Registration of Titles Regulations (Selangor[1891], Perak & Pahang [1897] and N. Sembilan [1898]. Enacted all in one enactment for all states: Land Enactment 1897 Two uniform laws for all states: FMS Land Enactment 1911 (dealt with registration of lands less than 100 acres in Mukim Register) and FMS Registration of Titles Enactment 1911 (dealt with registration of land exceeding 100 acres in town and country land) Amended by: Land Code 1928 At the same time, UFMS still apply their Land Enactments Example Johor Land Enactment 1910, Kedah Land Enactment 1906, Kelantan Land Enactment 1938 and Terengganu Land Enactment Malacca and Penang still apply English Deeds System. After Federation of Malaya (formed in 1948) The new draft of National Land Code (NLC) to achieve uniformity for all come into force on 1 st January NLC (Penang and Malacca Titles Act 1963 was also enacted as part of the Torrens System. How Torrens System evolved into NLC 1965? Early Stage: Enacted: General Land Regulations (Perak [1879], Selangor [1882], N. Sembilan [1887] and Pahang [1888]) Followed By: Registration of Titles Regulations (Selangor[1891], Perak & Pahang [1897] and N. Sembilan [1898]. Enacted all in one enactment for all states: Land Enactment 1897 Two uniform laws for all states: FMS Land Enactment 1911 (dealt with registration of lands less than 100 acres in Mukim Register) and FMS Registration of Titles Enactment 1911 (dealt with registration of land exceeding 100 acres in town and country land) Amended by: Land Code 1928 At the same time, UFMS still apply their Land Enactments Example Johor Land Enactment 1910, Kedah Land Enactment 1906, Kelantan Land Enactment 1938 and Terengganu Land Enactment Malacca and Penang still apply English Deeds System. After Federation of Malaya (formed in 1948) The new draft of National Land Code (NLC) to achieve uniformity for all come into force on 1 st January NLC (Penang and Malacca Titles Act 1963 was also enacted as part of the Torrens System.

10 Torrens System in Malaysia Issues on Torrens System: the applicability of English land law. 1.Whether NLC permits the application of equity relating to English law to land matters. Haji Abdul Rahman v Mohamed Hassan [1917] AC 209 Malayan United Finance Bhd v Tay Lay Soon [1991] 1 MLJ Section 6 of Civil Law Act prohibits the application of English law and equity in land matters. Devi v Francis [1969] 2 MLJ 169 Chin Choy v Collector of Stamp Duties [1981] 2 MLJ Section 206(3) provides statutory authority for the application of equity into land matters. Templeton v Low Yat Holdings Sdn Bhd [1993] 1 MLJ NLC is a complete and comprehensive code governing land matters. There is no room for England law. United Malayan Banking Corporation Bhd v Pemungut Hasil Tanah, Kota Tinggi [1984] 2 MLJ Unless otherwise provided… Pemungut Hasil Tanah, Kota Tinggi v United Malayan Banking Corporation Bhd [1981] 2 MLJ 264 (Detail discussion: Teo et al., Land Law in Malaysia: Cases & Commentary, 2 nd Ed., 1995.) Issues on Torrens System: the applicability of English land law. 1.Whether NLC permits the application of equity relating to English law to land matters. Haji Abdul Rahman v Mohamed Hassan [1917] AC 209 Malayan United Finance Bhd v Tay Lay Soon [1991] 1 MLJ Section 6 of Civil Law Act prohibits the application of English law and equity in land matters. Devi v Francis [1969] 2 MLJ 169 Chin Choy v Collector of Stamp Duties [1981] 2 MLJ Section 206(3) provides statutory authority for the application of equity into land matters. Templeton v Low Yat Holdings Sdn Bhd [1993] 1 MLJ NLC is a complete and comprehensive code governing land matters. There is no room for England law. United Malayan Banking Corporation Bhd v Pemungut Hasil Tanah, Kota Tinggi [1984] 2 MLJ Unless otherwise provided… Pemungut Hasil Tanah, Kota Tinggi v United Malayan Banking Corporation Bhd [1981] 2 MLJ 264 (Detail discussion: Teo et al., Land Law in Malaysia: Cases & Commentary, 2 nd Ed., 1995.)

11 Thank you


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