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Integumentary System Protection & support Sensory Respiratory (amphibians) Thermoregulation – Dissipate heat (blood vessels, sweat) – Conserve heat (blood vessels, hair, feathers)
Locomotion Water balance Protective coloring, behavior Vitamin D synthesis
Epidermis Ectodermal derivative nonvascular
Epidermis Stratum germinativum – Deeper layer – Mitosis
Epidermis Superficial layer – Mucus cells (amphibians, fish) – Proteinaceous cells/granular glands Slime, poisons, enamels, photophores, pheromones Keratin (cornified, horny, stratum corneum) – Tetrapod feature
Epidermis Glands are epidermal in origin
Dermis Dermatome (mesoderm) in origin Lateral/ventral mesoderm Neural crest cells for pigment
Dermis Collagen for strength Mucopolysaccharides Elastic fibers Smooth muscle Blood and lymph vessels Follicles and bases of gland
Dermis Dermis has ancient potential in forming bone as in this ostracoderm!
Hard or Mineralized Tissues Enamel Dentin Bone – Lamellar = Compact – Spongy
Hard tissues Bone is very primitive dating back to the ostracoderms
Dermis Chromatophores – Dermal in origin – From neural crest cells – Homeotherms have melanophores & pigment is INJECTED into epidermis – Poikilotherms – the pigment stays in the dermis
Dermis - Chromatophores Iridophores – silvery & iridescent Xanthophores – yellow Erythrophores - red
Fish Skin - Epidermis Cyclostomes – thin with unicellular mucus glands Jawed fish – unicellular mucus glands, no keratin!, photophores in some
Fish Dermis Cyclostomes – no scales Ostracoderms & Placoderms – Armor shields
Ostracoderm Armor Lamellar bone Spongy bone Dentin(e) Enamel
Armor Shield Denticle – Elevations capped with enamel Protection Mineral reservoir
Fish Dermis Cosmoid scales Modified dentin layer called Cosmine Extinct sarcopterygians
Fish Dermis Ganoid scales Modified thick enamel layer called ganoine Found in gars
Fish Dermis Placoid scales Chondrichthyes Denticle points reduce friction Ancestor to teeth
Placoid Scales Dentin Pulp Pulp cavity Epidermis
Fish Dermis Modern scales Acellular Thin lamellar bone only Teleosts and modern sarcopterygians Annual rings allows aging of fish
Cycloid & Ctenoid Scales
Key Points Give two major characteristics of fish skin.
Amphibians No scales Multicellular glands (mucus) Stratum corneum – keratin – tetrapod feature
Amphibian Epidermis Thin Stratum corneum with keratin Mucus and granular glands
IntegumentIntegument DermisDermis EpidermisEpidermis Mucus gland Poison gland
Amphibian Dermis Firmly attached May have chromatophores (Caecilians may have bony dermal scales)
Key Points Give 2 major characteristics of amphibian skin
Reptile Skin THICK stratum corneum Epidermal scales in all Horny (keratinized)surface structures Very few glands, dry skin Some have bony dermal scales or plates
ScalesScales EpidermisEpidermis DermisDermis ScaleScale CornifiedlayerCornifiedlayer ChromatophoresChromatophores
Reptile epidermis Stratum corneum with keratin Scales Scutes No mucus glands Some have granular/scent glands, but rare
ScalesScales EpidermisEpidermis DermisDermis ScaleScale CornifiedlayerCornifiedlayer ChromatophoresChromatophores
Reptile Dermis Thin Osteoderms e.g. crocodile Turtle shell – Carapace – Plastron Gastralia – Abdominal “ribs” but dermal scale splints in abdomen of crocodiles
Key Points Give 2 major characteristics of reptile skin
Thin skin, only thick at foot and beak Loose skin FEATHERS Evolution of feathers
Bird Epidermis Thin Horny scales at face, legs, feet Beak Uropygial glands at rump, esp. in aquatic birds
Bird Epiderms - Feathers Contour feathers
Shaft – Calamus = Quill – Rachis – vane-bearing part Vane – Barb – Barbule – Hooklet
FeathersFeathers ShaftShaft QuillQuill VaneVane
Feather structure ShaftShaft BarbBarb HookletsHooklets BarbuleBarbule
Bird feathers Preening Rehooks hooklets
Bird feathers Down Feathers MAY be ancestral feather Short calamus No hooklets insulation
Feathers Contour feathers Down feathers Filoplumes Bristles
Bird feathers Feather follicle – ectoderm, but activated by vascular mesoderm Molt is shedding old and growing new feathers
Bird Dermis Thin Arrector pullorum muscle Some males have a spur of dermal bone near feet
Mammal skin Hair Glands – a variety Highly keratinized stratified cornified epidermis Thick dermis
Mammal Epidermis Stratum germinativum for mitosis Stratum granulosum (one or more layers) Stratum corneum
Stratum corneum derivatives Horny scales as in beaver tail Claws, hooves, nails, armadillo shell
Stratum corneum derivatives - horns True horns Dermal bony core Horny cover Not shed Ruminants (antelope, cattle)
Stratum corneum derivatives - horns Hair horns Rhinoceros
Stratum corneum derivatives - horns Antlers & giraffe horns Bone Velvet Antlers (deer, elk, moose) shed but not giraffe horns
Mammal Epidermis Glands Sweat Sebaceous Scent Mammary
IntegumentIntegument Eccrine sweat gland gland SweatporeSweatpore SebaceousglandSebaceousgland ErectormuscleErectormuscle FollicleFollicle Apocrine sweat gland gland
Mammal Epidermis Hairs Origin Shaft – Cortex with cuticle – Medulla
Mammal Epidermis - hair Root of hair – Follicle undergoes mitosis – Bulb is widened area in dermis providing nourishment for growing hair Arrector pili muscle
Types of hairs Guard hairs
Types of hair Underfur
Types of hair Vibrissae
Types of hair Quills
Mammal Dermis Very thick Follicles Arrectors CT Blood vessels Gland bases Nerve endings
Key Points Give one major characteristic of bird skin Give one major characteristic of mammal skin
Epidermal or Dermal? Sweat gland Hair Fish scale Reptile scale Oil gland
Comparative Anatomy Integument Kardong Chapter 6 Part 8.
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