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AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE FOR EMERGENCY MEDICINE 54th FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATION 16 th October 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE FOR EMERGENCY MEDICINE 54th FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATION 16 th October 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE FOR EMERGENCY MEDICINE 54th FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATION 16 th October 2014

2 Written Exam: 2 SAQs and 5 MCQs Clinical Exam 2 OSCEs Duration: 30 minutes, 3 teams

3 SAQ 1 Case Stem: This is Logan. He is from Logan. He drives a Holden. On weekends he also sells…

4 SAQ 1 Case Stem: This is Logan. He is from Logan. He drives a Holden. On weekends he also sells… vitamins and supplements.

5 SAQ 1 Sat night watching TV on couch 4 guys bashed him up for no reason

6 SAQ 1. Describe the dental injuries in this photo. (2 minutes)

7 Dental Trauma 3 take home points 1.Two groups of dental trauma: Fractures & Luxations 2. Dental Box with 2 types of cement: Calcium & GIC -“Fractures = Calcium to put a Cap” -“Luxations = GIC to close the Gap” 3. Avulsions: <1hr, Saliva/Milk, Splint

8 Dental Trauma 2 groups of dental trauma: 1. Hard Dental tissue injury = FRACTURES Clinical significance: Class 2 and 3 need emergency capping to reduce risk of pulp infection What Ellis class is the fracture of tooth 11? What Ellis class is the fracture of tooth 21?

9 Dental Trauma Two groups of dental trauma: 2. Periodontal tissue injury = LUXATIONS 4 types of luxation -SUBLUX = loose but no displacement -LATERAL = Sideways displacement -INTRUSIVE = into socket -EXTRUSIVE = partially out of socket Avulsion = tooth completely out of socket

10 SAQ 1. Describe Logan’s dental injuries. Vocab: Luxation – lateral, extrusive, intrusive Avulsion Complex dental injury involving teeth 22 and 23 and surrounding gingiva, lip and adjacent alveolar bone. Complete avulsion of tooth 23 with exposed peri-odontal ligament cells and possible Ellis 4 root fracture. Anterior displacement of tooth 22 with intrusive luxation.

11 SAQ 2a. Describe and interpret Logan’s OPG. (1 minute)

12 SAQ 2a. Describe and interpret Logan’s OPG. REPORT: Oblique fracture is seen extending through the left maxilla. Movement artefact obscuring the apices of the upper jaw teeth. Previous dental work noted. No mandibular fracture is identified. The temporomandibular joints are normally opposed. No air-fluid level within the right maxillary antra.

13 Different Case Stem = but same location of pain. 37yr aboriginal woman, No trauma, left toothache 4 days, left upper gingival swelling, and fevers. SAQ 2b. Describe and interpret this OPG (1 minute)

14 REPORT: Multiple missing teeth. Multiple dental fillings. Multiple dental caries. Lucency surrounding root of tooth 23 concerning for dental abscess.

15 Dental Trauma MCQ 1 In avulsion dental injuries, how soon should the tooth be re-inserted to maximize the viability of the peri- odontal ligament cells? 1hr, 2hrs, 3hrs, 4hrs

16 Dental Trauma MCQ 1 In avulsion dental injuries, how soon should the tooth be re-inserted to maximize the viability of the peri-odontal ligament cells? 1hr, 2hrs, 3hrs, 4hrs Answer: Aim to reinsert tooth with intact viable peri- odontal cells within 1 hr. Timing – 85-97% tooth survival if reimplanted within 5 mins, 60mins coz periodontoid ligament cells dead and apex socket closes over. If place tooth in isotonic solution = increase viability time to 4-6 hrs.

17 Dental Trauma MCQ 2 All of the following are an appropriate transportation medium for an avulsed tooth, EXCEPT Saliva milk contact lens solution chocolate yoghurt

18 Dental Trauma MCQ 2 All of the following are an appropriate transportation medium for an avulsed tooth, EXCEPT Saliva, milk, contact lens solution, chocolate yoghurt Answer: Maintain periodontal cells via saliva, milk (isotonic, mg and ca), sterile saline, contact lens solution. NOT soy, choc milk, juice. Prolongs viability of cells to 4-6hrs.

19 Dental Trauma MCQ 3 When handling an avulsed tooth you should always: Scrub the root clean, hold only the crown, boil the tooth for sterilization, Lick your fingers first

20 Dental Trauma MCQ 3 When handling an avulsed tooth you should always: Scrub the root clean, hold only the crown, boil the tooth for sterilization, Lick your fingers first Answer: do not scrub root, only handle crown, thus avoid disruption of periodontal ligament cells

21 Dental Trauma MCQ 4 An infra-orbital nerve block in dental trauma results in local anaesthesia to which teeth: Front 2 incisors 11 and 21, Maxillary Incisors / Canine / Molars, Mandibular teeth 31 to 35, Maxillary teeth 21 to 25

22 Dental Trauma MCQ 4 An infra-orbital nerve block in dental trauma results in local anaesthesia to which teeth: Front 2 incisors 11 and 21, Maxillary Incisors / Canine / Molars, Mandibular teeth 31 to 35, Maxillary teeth 21 to 25 Answer: infra-orbital nerve block (maxillary teeth 1- 5), individual maxillary teeth local block, inferior- alveolar block (all mandibular teeth)

23 Dental Trauma MCQ 5 To splint an avulsed tooth to an adjacent tooth, all of the following methods are acceptable EXCEPT: Blutac and tinfoil, Using Glass Ionomer Cement, Using Calcium hydroxide cement, Mouth guard

24 Dental Trauma MCQ 5 To splint an avulsed tooth to an adjacent tooth, all of the following methods are acceptable EXCEPT: Blutac and tinfoil, Glass Ionomer Cement, Calcium hydroxide, Mouth guard 2 types of cement in Dental Box Calcium Hydroxide = FRACTURES Glass Ionomer Cement = LUXATIONS Remember: “Calcium = CAP” “GIC = GAP” Calcium hydroxide for “capping” a tooth with an Ellis 2 or 3 dental fracture. GIC to splint an avulsed tooth that has left a “gap”

25 Dental Trauma MCQ 5 To splint an avulsed tooth to an adjacent tooth, all of the following methods are acceptable EXCEPT: Blutac and tinfoil, Glass Ionomer Cement, Calcium hydroxide, Mouth guard 2 types of cement in Dental Box Calcium Hydroxide = FRACTURES – Fractures only = Ellis 2 or 3 only with pulp exposed – Calcium Hydroxide for pulp capping only – 4 benefits: antibacterial, localized buffer to neutralize acid, binds strongly to dentin, alters the physical matrix of dentin to decrease demineralisation Remember: “Calcium = CAP” “GIC = GAP” Calcium hydroxide for “capping” a tooth with an Ellis 2 or 3 dental fracture. GIC to splint an avulsed tooth that has left a “gap”

26 Dental Trauma MCQ 5 To splint an avulsed tooth to an adjacent tooth, all of the following methods are acceptable EXCEPT: Blutac and tinfoil, Glass Ionomer Cement, Calcium hydroxide, Mouth guard 2 types of cement in Dental Box Glass Ionomer Cement = LUXATIONS – Splinting of Luxations & Avulsions, NOT fracture pulp capping – polymer of silicon, fluoride and aluminum. – 3 benefits: tooth coloured, binds to strongly to enamel, releases fluoride. – Cons: lower compressible strength thus mainly for outside of tooth fillings or splinting, not mastication surface of tooth, thus not for capping Remember: “Calcium = CAP” “GIC = GAP” Calcium hydroxide for “capping” a tooth with an Ellis 2 or 3 dental fracture. GIC to splint an avulsed tooth that has left a “gap”

27 Dental Trauma OSCE 1 CLINICAL SCENARIO STEM: You are an emergency physician working in a rural district hospital. A 34yr old man called Logan has been assaulted in his home and presents with a dental avulsion of his left tooth. You have a dental trauma box and no other assistance. INSTRUCTIONS: You are required to use the contents of the dental box to reinsert and splint his tooth into anatomical position. You have 4 minutes.

28 Dental Trauma OSCE 2 CLINICAL SCENARIO STEM: You are an emergency physician working in a rural district hospital. A 34yr old man called Logan has been assaulted in his home and presents with a dental fracture of his left tooth with exposed pulp. You have a dental trauma box and no other assistance. INSTRUCTIONS: You are required to use the contents of the dental box to apply a dental cap to prevent a pulp infection. You have 4 minutes.

29 References and Resources: -Dental Trauma Box. Dr Tony Skapetis. Clinical Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Dentistry at Sydney University, BDS, MEd, PhD, Dentistry/Medical Education -Emergency Dental, Handbook for Medical practitioners Dr Tony Skapetis. -Classification of Dental Trauma & Management of dental avulsions: Powerpoint slides by Tony Skapetis -Paul Annerley Meats for the teeth

30 Dental Trauma 3 take home points 1.Two groups of dental trauma: _____ & _____ 2. Dental Box with 2 types of cement: ____ & ____ -“Fractures = ______ to put a Cap” -“Luxations = GIC to close the ______” 3. Avulsions: ____, milk/saliva, _____

31 Dental Trauma 3 take home points 1.Two groups of dental trauma: Fractures & Luxations 2. Dental Box with 2 types of cement: Calcium & GIC -“Fractures = Calcium to put a Cap” -“Luxations = GIC to close the Gap” 3. Avulsions: <1hr, Saliva/Milk, Splint

32 Dental Trauma THE END BEFORE AFTER

33 AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE FOR EMERGENCY MEDICINE 54th FELLOWSHIP EXAMINATION 16 th October 2014 END OF THE EXAM. EVERYONE PASSED !


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