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The Lymphatic System. Series of vessel/ducts Series of vessel/ducts –Carry excess tissue fluid to blood vessel Structures Structures –Lymph nodes –Spleen.

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Presentation on theme: "The Lymphatic System. Series of vessel/ducts Series of vessel/ducts –Carry excess tissue fluid to blood vessel Structures Structures –Lymph nodes –Spleen."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Lymphatic System

2 Series of vessel/ducts Series of vessel/ducts –Carry excess tissue fluid to blood vessel Structures Structures –Lymph nodes –Spleen –Thymus –Tonsils –Gut-associated lymph tissue (GALT)

3 The Lymphatic System Lymph= the fluid carried in the vessels Lymph= the fluid carried in the vessels –Cellular component  lymphocytes

4 Lymph Formation Excess Tissue Fluid=more fluid leaves blood capillaries, than is coming back Excess Tissue Fluid=more fluid leaves blood capillaries, than is coming back Arterial end of capillary-plasma leaves the capillaries due to pressure Arterial end of capillary-plasma leaves the capillaries due to pressure –Plasma delivers nutrients, oxygen, hormones to bathe cells –Fluid now in Interstitial space

5 Lymph formation Venous end of the capillaries Venous end of the capillaries –Blood pressure drops, so not pushing plasma out of capillary –Proteins still within capillaries-Increases oncotic pressure  pulls fluid back into the capillary (this force is not as strong normally as BP  lymph is formed) –Lymphatics collect excessive fluid –(Also can collect tumor cells, BT, proteins )

6 Lymph formation-gone wrong! What happens with low protein levels? What happens with low protein levels? What happens with high venous pressure?? What happens with high venous pressure?? Lymphedema

7 Lymph Capillaries Lymph capillaries start as blind ended structures. Lymph capillaries start as blind ended structures. Smaller lymph vessels come together to form larger vessels Smaller lymph vessels come together to form larger vessels

8 Lymphatic Circulation Vessels contain one way valves- prevent backward flow Vessels contain one way valves- prevent backward flow Vessels ultimately return to the circulation via Thoracic ducts Vessels ultimately return to the circulation via Thoracic ducts Lymphatics are not located in CNS and avascular structures such as cartilage, bone and teeth Lymphatics are not located in CNS and avascular structures such as cartilage, bone and teeth

9 Thoracic Duct

10 Lymphatic Circulation

11 Lymphatic vessels from the hindend drain into Cisterna chyli in cranial abdomen. Then joins the Thoracic Duct. Lymphatic vessels from the hindend drain into Cisterna chyli in cranial abdomen. Then joins the Thoracic Duct. Where does the Thoracic duct join the circulation? Where does the Thoracic duct join the circulation? All lymphatic vessel travel through at least one lymph node All lymphatic vessel travel through at least one lymph node

12 Lymph Composition –More water, sugar, electrolytes than plasma –Less of the large proteins (albumin, globulin and fibrinogen) than plasma Chyle = lymph from the digestive system Chyle = lymph from the digestive system –After meals-contains fat (chylomicrons) Increased fat in the plasma after meal = Lipemia Increased fat in the plasma after meal = Lipemia

13 Lipemia

14 Function of the Lymphatic System Removal of excess tissue fluid Removal of excess tissue fluid Waste material transport-cellular waste Waste material transport-cellular waste Filtration of lymph-microorganisms, cell debris, foreign material>before it enters the bloodstream Filtration of lymph-microorganisms, cell debris, foreign material>before it enters the bloodstream Protein Transport-large proteins in interstitium can’t reabsorb into blood capillaries Protein Transport-large proteins in interstitium can’t reabsorb into blood capillaries

15 Lymph Nodes Drain specific areas of the body Drain specific areas of the body Structure Structure –CT capsule –Afferent vessels-enter –Efferent vessels-exit –Cortex and medulla Cortex-location of lymphocytes clustered in Lymph nodules Cortex-location of lymphocytes clustered in Lymph nodules Medulla-macrophage located (filter) Medulla-macrophage located (filter)

16 Lymph Node Anatomy

17 Lymph node palpation Prescapular ln. Mandibular ln. Axillary ln. Inguinal ln. Popliteal ln. Fine Needle Aspiration

18 Lymphoma Lymphosarcoma Tumor of the lymph node system Tumor of the lymph node system

19 Spleen Lymphatic and Hematological function Lymphatic and Hematological function ****Left side of the abdomen**** ****Left side of the abdomen**** Connective tissue capsule surrounded by smooth muscle Connective tissue capsule surrounded by smooth muscle Trabeculae (branches of the capsule) sent into tissue of the spleen Trabeculae (branches of the capsule) sent into tissue of the spleen –Contains blood vessels, nerves, smooth muscle and lymph vessel

20 Spleen

21 Spleen Splenic contraction-contraction of the smooth muscle (carnivores>ruminants) Splenic contraction-contraction of the smooth muscle (carnivores>ruminants) Squeezes blood into circulation!!! Squeezes blood into circulation!!! –HBC!

22 Spleen Interior of spleen Interior of spleen –Red pulp-blood vessels and macrophages –White pulp-area of lymphoid tissue Lymphocytes –clonal division when needed Lymphocytes –clonal division when needed

23 Function of the Spleen Blood storage in red pulp Blood storage in red pulp Removal of foreign material-by macrophages in red pulp Removal of foreign material-by macrophages in red pulp Removal of dead, dying and abnormal RBC’s-macrophages in red pulp Removal of dead, dying and abnormal RBC’s-macrophages in red pulp Lymphocyte cloning-in white pulp Lymphocyte cloning-in white pulp ***Not essential for life***

24 Good thing it is not essential!! Splenic mass-hemangioma vs. Hemangiosarcoma Splenectomy to remove mass

25 Thymus Found in Cranial Thoracic region Found in Cranial Thoracic region –Found on either side of the trachea –Found in young animals then shrinks –Processes T lymphocytes to “kick start” developing immune system

26 Thymus

27 Tonsils Tonsils - This lymphoid tissue encircles the pharynx and screens pathogens entering in air or food. Tonsils - This lymphoid tissue encircles the pharynx and screens pathogens entering in air or food. –Palatine - Palate –Pharyngeal - Nasopharynx –Lingual - Base of tongue

28 Gut-Associated Lymph Tissue Lymphatic tissue found in the lining of the GI tract Lymphatic tissue found in the lining of the GI tract -largest lymphoid organ – if all put together! –Similar to Bursa of Fabricius in bird intestines Process B lymphocytes Process B lymphocytes Peyers patches - aggregates of lymphoid follicles Ileum of the intestines Peyers patches - aggregates of lymphoid follicles Ileum of the intestines

29 Clinical Why remove a lymph node near a cancer site? Why remove a lymph node near a cancer site? –That is where cancerous cells/antigens will be brought if the tumor is metastasizing. Removal of a lymph node causes localized edema. Why? Removal of a lymph node causes localized edema. Why? –There is decreased removal of interstitial fluid until the vessels from a nearby lymph node grow into the area. Why do spleens rupture so easily? Why do spleens rupture so easily? –Their capsules are very thin.

30 Immune System Function Protect the animal from anything that could cause disease or damage! Protect the animal from anything that could cause disease or damage! Must recognize “self” vs. “foreign invader” Must recognize “self” vs. “foreign invader” –Detects surface proteins  Antigen

31 Mechanisms to destroy foreign matter Phagocytosis and destruction of foreign cells Phagocytosis and destruction of foreign cells Lysis of foreign cell membranes Lysis of foreign cell membranes Inactivation of organism or chemical substances Inactivation of organism or chemical substances Clumping (agglutination) of cells Clumping (agglutination) of cells

32 Excessive Immune Response Immune mediated disease Immune mediated disease Anaphylaxis (excessive allergic reaction) Anaphylaxis (excessive allergic reaction)

33 Introduction to WBCs Neutrophils- phagocytosis Eosinophils- Allergic reaction Basophils-initiates Immune and allergic reactions

34 Introduction to WBCs Lymphocytes B T NK Monocyte- Phagocytosis

35 Nonspecific Immunity- Rapid response Barrier tissues-??? Barrier tissues-??? Inflammation Inflammation Phagocytosis Phagocytosis Natural killer (NK) cells-type of lymphocyte that kills cancer cells and viruses Natural killer (NK) cells-type of lymphocyte that kills cancer cells and viruses Interferon-protein produced by cell infected by virus, trying to prevent spread Interferon-protein produced by cell infected by virus, trying to prevent spread Complement-enzymes in plasma that can cause rupture of cell membrane of foreign cell Complement-enzymes in plasma that can cause rupture of cell membrane of foreign cell

36 Specific Immunity Specific reactions to destroy specific antigens Specific reactions to destroy specific antigens –Different viruses/but have different antigens Two types Two types –Humoral immunity –Cell Mediated immunity

37 Cell Mediated Immunity T lymphocytes attach to antigens on surface of the foreign cell T lymphocytes attach to antigens on surface of the foreign cell Usually viruses, fungi, cancerous cells Usually viruses, fungi, cancerous cells Process responsible for rejection of transplant tissue Process responsible for rejection of transplant tissue

38 Humoral Immunity Function of the B lymphocyte Function of the B lymphocyte B lymphocyte (plasma cell) produces antibodies (immunoglobulin) B lymphocyte (plasma cell) produces antibodies (immunoglobulin) Activated B lymphocytes  clonal division Activated B lymphocytes  clonal division Become plasma cells  produce only one type of Antibody for life Become plasma cells  produce only one type of Antibody for life IgG, IgA, IgE, IgM IgG, IgA, IgE, IgM

39 Just a little something to memorize!!!

40 Memory Cells B or T lymphocytes that remember the foreign invader B or T lymphocytes that remember the foreign invader Next exposure  greater response, faster!! Next exposure  greater response, faster!! Active immunity-Exposure to the antigen Active immunity-Exposure to the antigen –Infection or Vaccination Passive immunity-Ab received from mothers milk Passive immunity-Ab received from mothers milk

41 This workforce solution was funded by a grant awarded under the Workforce Innovation in Regional Development (WIRED) as implemented by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration working in partnership with the Colorado Department of Labor and Employment, the Metro Denver Economic Development Corporation, and the City and County of Denver's Office of Economic Development. The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. The Department of Labor makes no guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability, or ownership. This solution is copyrighted by the institution that created it. Internal use by an organization and/or personal use by an individual for non-commercial purposes is permissible. All other uses require the prior authorization of the copyright owner.


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