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Drying l Wood drying should be used seasoning for decreasing moisture content in wood lesser than 30 % for 1 month, then drying with kiln drying for 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Drying l Wood drying should be used seasoning for decreasing moisture content in wood lesser than 30 % for 1 month, then drying with kiln drying for 1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Drying l Wood drying should be used seasoning for decreasing moisture content in wood lesser than 30 % for 1 month, then drying with kiln drying for 1 month. l Lumber should be control drying at surface, not rapidity dried. l If moisture content in wood and surface of wood are difference more than 5 %, wood stress due to wood failure, e.g. bow, case hardening, and honeycombing.

3 Drying But some wood failure occurred from natural property of wood, e.g. grain and age,But some wood failure occurred from natural property of wood, e.g. grain and age, that fast growing species such as Eucalyptus and SaDuaTium, due to stress in wood, emphasize high growth stress of young tree.that fast growing species such as Eucalyptus and SaDuaTium, due to stress in wood, emphasize high growth stress of young tree. That is easily the end split.That is easily the end split. Therefore, the end of lumber should be printcoat for decreased evaporate moisture from wood.Therefore, the end of lumber should be printcoat for decreased evaporate moisture from wood. In addition to, piling should be used stick at the end of lumber and pressed on the top by weight.In addition to, piling should be used stick at the end of lumber and pressed on the top by weight.

4 III. Processing and Utilization 1. Primary processing1. Primary processing 1.1 Sawing1.1 Sawing 1.2 Wood preservation1.2 Wood preservation 2. Secondary processing2. Secondary processing 2.1 Furniture manufacturing2.1 Furniture manufacturing 2.2 Wood-based panels manufacturing2.2 Wood-based panels manufacturing 2.3 Pulp and paper manufacturing2.3 Pulp and paper manufacturing 2.4 Charcoal production2.4 Charcoal production

5 Furniture 1) Stable furniture or Furnished furniture1) Stable furniture or Furnished furniture 2) Knock down furniture2) Knock down furniture 1) Usage skilled labor more than unskilled labor1) Usage skilled labor more than unskilled labor 2) Manufacturing by machine2) Manufacturing by machine 3) Manufacturing by machine more than skilled labor3) Manufacturing by machine more than skilled labor

6 Wood-based panels - Veneer and plywood- Veneer and plywood - Composite board- Composite board - Fiberboard- Fiberboard - Particleboard- Particleboard - Wood cement board- Wood cement board

7 Veneer and plywood The shortage of large log, due to some factory changed peeling machine from 8 ft. to 4 ft. length and slicing machine for the thinnest veneer, 0.1 mm. thickness.The shortage of large log, due to some factory changed peeling machine from 8 ft. to 4 ft. length and slicing machine for the thinnest veneer, 0.1 mm. thickness. Some factory imported log for veneer production and re-export or overlay on wood products of factory.Some factory imported log for veneer production and re-export or overlay on wood products of factory.

8 Composite board Flooring (parquet and mosaic parquet) and block board are common technology.Flooring (parquet and mosaic parquet) and block board are common technology. by finger joint technique.by finger joint technique. Raw materials are Teak and Eucalyptus from plantation, rejected wood in flooring production % and %, respectively.Raw materials are Teak and Eucalyptus from plantation, rejected wood in flooring production % and %, respectively. Colour coating need to production because of still sapwood (cream colour), that difference from heartwood (dark colour).Colour coating need to production because of still sapwood (cream colour), that difference from heartwood (dark colour).

9 Fiberboard Hardboard and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF).Hardboard and Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF). All of Hardboard in Thailand produce with wet process.All of Hardboard in Thailand produce with wet process. Raw materials of Hardboard are Eucalyptus and wood from plantation e.g. KraTinTaPa (Acacia sp.) and also Bagasse.Raw materials of Hardboard are Eucalyptus and wood from plantation e.g. KraTinTaPa (Acacia sp.) and also Bagasse. Raw materials of MDF are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus, KraTinTaPa, and Bagasse (MDF, which Bagasse used the first factory of the world).Raw materials of MDF are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus, KraTinTaPa, and Bagasse (MDF, which Bagasse used the first factory of the world).

10 Particleboard * Particleboard used as raw material for construction and furniture production because of decreasing of solid wood and logging ban in Due to particleboard used increasing in wood working.* Particleboard used as raw material for construction and furniture production because of decreasing of solid wood and logging ban in Due to particleboard used increasing in wood working. Extruded pressed processing used only one factory. Another factory used platen pressed processing.Extruded pressed processing used only one factory. Another factory used platen pressed processing. Raw materials are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus and Bagasse. 3 layers sheet, 12 and 16 mm. thickness, is characteristically of particleboard in Thailand.Raw materials are Rubberwood, Eucalyptus and Bagasse. 3 layers sheet, 12 and 16 mm. thickness, is characteristically of particleboard in Thailand.

11 Wood cement board Raw material of Wood Wool Cement Board is SomPhong (Tetrameles nudiflora R.Br.), import from Myanmar, today. Wood Cement Particleboard produced from Eucalyptus. Wood Cement Fiberboard, plank for wall house, produced from cement approximately 90 % and recovered paper approximately 10 % with mixed a little asbestos.

12 Pulp and paper Raw materials ; non-wood (e.g. Straw, Bamboo, Kenaf and Bagasse) and wood (Eucalyptus).Raw materials ; non-wood (e.g. Straw, Bamboo, Kenaf and Bagasse) and wood (Eucalyptus). That is short fiber, so Thailand must imported long fiber and also recovered paper.That is short fiber, so Thailand must imported long fiber and also recovered paper.

13 All pulp factories produce with chemical process except one factory produced pulp with semichemical process yield approximately 45 %.All pulp factories produce with chemical process except one factory produced pulp with semichemical process yield approximately 45 %. The products are kraft paper 50 % and other papers : printing-writing paper, paperboard, newsprint paper, household and sanitary paper etc.The products are kraft paper 50 % and other papers : printing-writing paper, paperboard, newsprint paper, household and sanitary paper etc.

14 Charcoal It’s produced with soil or rice husk mound and mud beehive. Commercial charcoal produced usually with brick beehive. Now, lapwood of Eucalyptus from plantation widespread produced charcoal and briquett for export. In addition to, activated carbon produced from charcoal for industry.

15 Each year, Thailand has consumption charcoal 3 million kg. Demand of charcoal for export is large scale. Recovery rate of charcoal production is % of wood at oven dry weight.Recovery rate of charcoal production is % of wood at oven dry weight. Pile of Eucalyptus 1 cu.m. can be produced charcoal 120 kg. Heat value of Eucalyptus charcoal is 7.35 kg.cal/g.Pile of Eucalyptus 1 cu.m. can be produced charcoal 120 kg. Heat value of Eucalyptus charcoal is 7.35 kg.cal/g. The highest heat value is charcoal from KongKang (Rhizophora sp.), 7.50 kg.cal./g.The highest heat value is charcoal from KongKang (Rhizophora sp.), 7.50 kg.cal./g.

16 IV. Markets and Socio-Economics Wood consumption in Thailand is about 3-4 million cu.m./year. Imported wood and wood products : (1999) 1. Log 0.47 million cu.m. cost $ 80.8 million and sawntimber 1.25 million cu.m. cost $ million. 2. Wood productions : plywood, particleboard, fiberboard, parquet, fuelwood, charcoal, furniture, door, window, etc total cost $ 28.9 million. 3. Pulp 438,525 tons of total cost $ million. 4. Paper 365,208 tons of total cost $ million. $ million.

17 IV. Markets and Socio-Economics The averaged increasing of Thailand’s population is 1.2 % per year. In 1985, Thailand has 53 million populations and increased to 61 million in 1999, therefore, the demand in wood and wood products consumption increased every year. The country’s capacity to produce and reforest cannot meet the demand so the price of wood and wood products still high.

18 Sawmills and Wood working factories Bangkok 38 % Central region 33 % Northeastern region 10 % Southern region 10 % Northern region 8 % LOCATION SIZE OF FACTORY 89 % of these factories are the small factory, 10 % of medium factories and only 1 % of the large factories. Total 6,911 factories, 6,342 of furniture factories

19 Investment and Labors The capital investment cost $ 1,085 million, which 176,000 labors were employed. 262 of 2,692 furniture factories are the factories which used Rubberwood for furniture production and employ 68,992 labors.

20 Eucalyptus wood marketing Eucalyptus aged 5 years gave wood tons/rai. The total capital were 8,140 baht/rai. The selling price of log was 850 baht/ton, thus, the income was 14,152 baht and the net profit was 6,012 baht, that the averaged income per year total 1,200 baht/rai.

21 The price of the thinning teak wood from the FIO (Forest Industry Organizaion) at girth cm. and 2-6 m. length will cost 2,100-18,400 baht/cu.m.

22 Import and export Thailand’s wood products for the wood industry 1. Lumber Industry 2. Furniture Industry 3. Wood products industry for household 4. Pulp and paper industry

23 % In 1999, the imported value cost $ million. The important to import lumber are ASEAN (80 %), U.S.A. (12 %), European Union (2 %), and other countries (6 %). ASEAN (80 %) U.S.A. (12 %) E.U. (2 %) OTHERS (6 %) Lumber Industry

24 % The exported value was $ million, the important country to export were Japan (22 %), ASEAN (15 %), European Union (11 %) and U.S.A. (4 %). Japan (22 %) ASEAN (15 %) E.U. (11 %) U.S.A. (4 %) Lumber Industry

25 Furniture Industry % In 1998, the total exported furniture value was $ million, 60 % of Rubberwood furniture, 30 % of particleboard and MDF furniture and 10 % of hardwood furniture. JAPAN (43 %) U.S.A. (36 %) E.U. (11 %) OTHERS (8 %) ASEAN (2 %)

26 Wood products industry for household % The import value in 1989 were $ million by import plywood, veneer and other products ASEAN (52 %) OTHERS (23 %) E.U. (16 %) U.S.A. (6 %) JAPAN (2 %)

27 % The export, in 1989, were $ million ; U.S.A. (44 %) E.U. (30 %) JAPAN (14 %) OTHERS (11 %) ASEAN (1 %) Wood products industry for household The handicraft such as the plates produced from Rubberwood, the decoration : frame, carved wood, which always produced from Mango wood and Teak. The exported were 80 % and used in domestic only 20 %.

28 Pulp and paper industry % The value of thailand’s export pulp, paper, and paper products such as household and sanitary paper were $ million, ASEAN (27 %) E.U. (18 %) U.S.A. (3 %) JAPAN (1 %)

29 Thailand have of import pulp especially long fiber from U.S.A., Canada, and Africa total value cost $ million and also import paperboard, box, kraft paper, printing-writing paper, newsprint paper, and sanitary paper etc. In 1988, the total value were $ million. Pulp and paper industry

30 V. Policy and Legislation 1. Forestry Act 2. National Forest Policy 3. Thai Forestry Sector Master Plan 4. Funding support 5. The composed cooperatives 6. Reformation in the Industrial Structure 7. Tariff measurement

31 1. Forestry Act The Forestry Act 1941 for protect the selection cutting and illegal logging. The mentioned law did not support to the present wood industry development. The act improvement is quite difficult and more complex, thus the promulgated the new act is the success way, for example The Forest Plantation Act 1992

32 2. National Forest Policy Created in 1983 for the long term in forest resources management and development were concerned about this issue : - government organization, private and community sector - wood industry - reforestation, plantation - etc

33 3. Thai Forestry Sector Master Plan formulated during by the technical assistant of the Finland government. for solving the problem of the short of wood and strengthen the confidence on the raw materials by the management of forest plantation, community forest and private forest. (within 2010)

34 4. Funding support from the Agriculture and Cooperatives Bank and the Japan Oversea Economic Cooperative Funding (OECF) but the rules and conditions is complex In conclusion, the funding which the farmer received was only 3,000 baht/rai from the Farmer Extension for Forest Plantation Project.

35 5. The composed cooperatives For the forest plantation farmer to compose and set the cooperatives in each province. The targets of the cooperatives are for log selling and wood industries for producing to support domestic demand and export. There are 30 cooperatives, at present (Thailand has 76 provinces).

36 6. Reformation in the Industrial Structure The Ministry of Industry hold a meeting to discuss for the new structure of Thailand industry : For the problems and create the strategies on Thailand’s wood products and furniture industry

37 7. Tariff measurement The tariff measurement appointed the tax of exported log and lumber 40 %, and 10 % for the unsuitable wood for wood production. The imported wood products can be locally produced is 20 % and 10 % of them which cannot locally produced.

38 VI. Institutional Capacity 1. Planning sector –1.1 The National Research Council of Thailand –1.2 The Forestry Research Office 2. Operating sector –2.1 Forest Products R&D Division (FPRD) –2.2 Kasetsart University (KU) Forest Products Division, Faculty of Forestry Pulp/paper and Wood Composites Research Unit

39 National Research Council of Thailand For the National Research in 4 directions :For the National Research in 4 directions : 1)self dependence country1)self dependence country 2)improvement in productivity and value added2)improvement in productivity and value added 3)improvement in quality of life, social, and environment3)improvement in quality of life, social, and environment 4) information reception in country ability4) information reception in country ability

40 Forestry Research Office 3 policy of planning in R&D as follows :3 policy of planning in R&D as follows : 1)forest conservation and protection plan1)forest conservation and protection plan 2)forest resource processing and utilization plan2)forest resource processing and utilization plan 3)sustainable forestry management plan3)sustainable forestry management plan Wood utilization program is appointed for the purpose of developing new efficient technology for local wood sp. instead of imported wood.Wood utilization program is appointed for the purpose of developing new efficient technology for local wood sp. instead of imported wood.

41 Forest Products R&D Division (FPRD) FPRD is directly responsible to study to products:FPRD is directly responsible to study to products: - properties of wood,- properties of wood, - wood products,- wood products, - wood and non-wood industry,- wood and non-wood industry, - non-wood utilization,- non-wood utilization, - other materials instead of wood,- other materials instead of wood, - energy from wood or residual agriculture.- energy from wood or residual agriculture.

42 Kasetsart University (KU) Forest Products Division, Faculty of Forestry2.2.1 Forest Products Division, Faculty of Forestry the majority to produce graduate in wood industry for government office and emphasize wood industrial company.the majority to produce graduate in wood industry for government office and emphasize wood industrial company. graduated of wood science and technology. And start up in this year for graduated of pulp and paper technologygraduated of wood science and technology. And start up in this year for graduated of pulp and paper technology

43 Pulp/paper and Wood Composites Research Unit supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).supported by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Study to wood and residual agriculture, developing new technology for pulp and paper, and wood composite board.Study to wood and residual agriculture, developing new technology for pulp and paper, and wood composite board.

44 Company of wood industry has R&D unit, only large factory.has R&D unit, only large factory. The main target of study for received product standard and decrease production cost.The main target of study for received product standard and decrease production cost. Some issue they study with FPRD and KU.Some issue they study with FPRD and KU.

45 VII. Overview and Conclusion THAILAND area 51,311,502 hectares population 61.7 million. Forest area 12,972,200 hectares (25.28 %) to increase forest lands to 40 % wood consumption is 0.2 cu.m./year/person or million cu.m./year. logging ban in 1989, imported wood and wood products over than $ 800 million.

46 VII. Overview and Conclusion Wood shortage is still a major problem for related industries. At present, there is an attempt to develop Rubberwood species for timber, high yield of fiber from Eucalyptus, including to add more value for wood from plantation to furniture and flooring industries. Teak from thinning period is found to be too small and low recovery rate

47 VII. Overview and Conclusion Thailand has a privilege for plantation due to its location. Only 4-6 years for fast growing species and years for normal trees, harvesting can be done

48 Model of Wood Utilization The best way to use a tree is to consider how to efficiently use every part of the tree such as root, stump, log and branches, which manufacturing process has to be employed. Wood may be dried and preserved to make it strong and last longer time. Lapwood can be used for tools, wood products, parquet, woodfuel, charcoal and chipwood. Stumps and branches can be used as woodfuel and chipwood, as well, for large scale of industries of wood chemical products, pulp and paper, fiberboard, which made from chipwood through defibration process. Chipwood, also can be dissolved into particle, without defibrator, mixed with resin and cement for particleboard and wood cement board, respectively. Timber can be added for highest value by using as veneer or plywood. Core and lapwood from the veneer process can be used as chipwood. Moreover some parts of wood from the process can be raw material for carving as well. Small log can be used as poles for construction. As mentioned above, the uses of wood will be efficient and intelligent if there are industries to support or so called “Integrated Wood Industries”.

49 Model of Wood Utilization Log Branch es Stump /Root Sawmill Peeling/S licing Lumb er Drying Preservation Furniture Constructed lumber Household utensils Lapwo od Flooring/P arquet Fuelwood Chippe r Chipwo od Carved wood Veneer Plywood Core/Veneer residue Particleb oard Cement-bonded Particleboard Defibr ator Pulp & Paper Fiberb oard Wood Chemical Wood-wool Cementboard Pole/P ost

50 VII. Overview and Conclusion Due to economic crisis in Thailand, last 5 years there was decreasing of wood and wood products. On the other hand export of such was increasing. This may be results from industrial and economic reform.

51 VII. Overview and Conclusion At present, there is a concept to encourage local people to live on their feet. The attitudes of using local products or their household products are arising. The government has also launched a campaign namely “One village, one product” to promote indigenous knowledge to create their own specific product.

52 VII. Overview and Conclusion For International Role on wood industry, Thailand has joined the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) to pursue sustainable wood industries and make an agreement done on February 1997 in New York, following the proposal of Open-ended adhoc Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF) to conduct sustainable forest management for wood industry in all aspect; business, environment, products and services from the forest.

53 THANK YOU FROM THAILAND


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