Presentation on theme: "Student : Md.Jabed Hasan Committee : Dr. Esa Viljakainen (Chairperson)"— Presentation transcript:
1CHEMICAL ADDITIVES AND SURFACTANTS ON KRAFT PULPING OF E. CAMALDULENSIS Student : Md.Jabed HasanCommittee : Dr. Esa Viljakainen (Chairperson)Dr. Mousa M. NazhadProf. Seyed Ahmad MirshokraieDr. Esa LehtinenMay, 2009
2CONTENTS Introduction Literature review Experimental Results and discussionsConclusionPositive outcome of the thesisRecommendations
3Introduction Now pulp and paper industries have two major problems 1.Environmental problem2.Economic problemTo reduce deforestationTo protect environmentTo reduce costTo make the process more environment friendly
4IntroductionThe wood costs, almost 50% of the production costs for a pulpmill.The average global conifer wood price reached a new all-time-high ofUS$112.53/odmt (oven-dry metric ton) in the 2Q/08.This was up 11% from 2007 and 26% higher than two years ago.Source: according to the [2Q 2008 ] market report Wood Resource Quarterly (WRQ).
5IntroductionThe average non-conifer wood fiber costs were reaching a record-high of US$108.77/odmt in the 2Q,which was up 16% from a year ago and 23% higher than in 2006.Some of the largest increases have occurred in Brazil where costs for pulpwood traded in the open market have increased over 300 % in five years in US dollar terms, and more than 200 % as measured in the Brazilian Reais.Source: according to the [2Q 2008 ] market report Wood Resource Quarterly (WRQ).
6IntroductionEnvironmental regulations in different countries have been set a limit of the amount of effluent (its components) discharges.
10Pulp mills release toxins such as dioxin and furan and other organochlorines in their effluent Source:
11Picture of Boreal forest Source: Save Our Boreal Forests, the Mystery and the Heritage, Wilderness Committee Educational Report, Vol.11 - No.07, Fall 1992
12Objectives of the study Science, there is no superior pulping procedure than kraft process,We have to improve the processeither by process modification like MCC, EMCC, RDH.or by adding some chemicals to improve yield and delignification.
13IntroductionProcess modification requires major capital investment and increase recovery boiler load.Digester additives are less costly alternatives for decreasing kappa number and improving yield.Digester modifications and pulping additives do not work antagonistically but are complementary
14Objectives of the study Table: Chemical Composition of E. urophylla and E. camaldulensis.Tree specieDensity, g/cm3Cellulose, %Lignin, %Pentozan, %Ash,%E. urophillaE. camaldulensis0.570.5547.648.125.427.5220.127.116.11.7● In Thailand, 5-year-old E. camaldulensis gave 72% holocellulose, 29% lignin, 12% pentosan and 8% extractives.● Cooking yield of E. camaldulensis is around 47%.Source: Science Report of Research Institute of Pulp and Paper Industry of Vietnam, Special Issue. November 1991.Source: Pattanopast, S. Effect of sulfidity on chemical properties of sulfate pulp from the river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.), Master Thesis, Kasetsart University, Thailand, p 211. (1995).
15Objectives of the study Many researches have done in Europe, North and South America with different additives for their local softwood and hardwood kraft cookingVery few researches have done in Southeast Asian hardwoods like Eucalyptus.We wanted compare the effectiveness of different additives with traditional kraft process in local wood.
16Scope of study● To find out the effect of additives in kraft pulping of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.● To find out the effect of solvent in kraft pulping of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.● To find out the combine and synergistic effect of additives and solvent in kraft pulping of Eucalyptus camaldulensis.● To find out the yield and quality of pulps from different additives charges
17Literature review Inhibiting the "peeling reaction" Oxidizing agent, converts the reducing (reactive) end group of the carbohydrates to an alkali-stable aldonic acid.reducing agent, converts the carbonyl group in the reducing end units of carbohydrate chains to hydroxyl groups.
18Literature reviewThe phenyl propane units of lignin are joined through carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bonds in a random sequence.During pulping, most of the carbon-carbon linkages are stable, while carbon-oxygen bonds are cleaved to varying extents.
19Literature reviewA proposed mechanism illustrating the function of anthraquinone as a redox catalyst.Source: Fleming, B.I., Kubes, G.J., Macleod, J.M., and Bolker, H.I., "Soda pulping With Anthraquinone: A Mechanism", Tappi 61(6): 43-46, (1978).
20Literature reviewSource: Y. Copur, A. Tozluoglu, A comparison of kraft, PS, kraft-AQ and kraft-NaBH4 pulps of Brutia pine, Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 909–913.
21Literature reviewSource: Minja, R. J. A., Moe, S. T., Christensen, P. K. (1996): "Extended delignification of kraft pulping by anthraquinone, methanol and black liquor", 1996 Pulping conference Vol. 1, p. 319 – 324.
22Literature reviewSource: Nam–Seok C., Yuji M., Et al. (2008). Effect of urea addition on Soda pulping of Oak wood. J. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ., 53 (1), 1–5.
23Literature reviewSource: Nam–Seok C., Yuji M., Et al. (2008). Effect of urea addition on Soda pulping of Oak wood. J. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ., 53 (1), 1–5.
24Experimental Chemicals as additives Anthraquinone Urea Phosphonates (1-Hydroxyethylene-1,1-di-phosphonic acid)Methanol
25Optimum charge of AQ + MeOH ExperimentalCook: To find out the most effective charge of additiveCook-3: To find out the most effective charge of Additive and surfactantReferenceReferenceAdditive AQCharge 0.04%AQ, charge 0.04% +MeOH, Charge 10%Additive AQCharge 0.06%AQ, charge 0.06% +MeOH, Charge 10%Most effective chargeOptimum charge of AQ + MeOHAdditive AQCharge 0.08%AQ, charge 0.08% +MeOH, Charge 10%Additive AQCharge 0.10%AQ, charge 0.10% +MeOH, Charge 10%Additive AQCharge 0.12%AQ, charge 0.12% +MeOH, Charge 10%
28Results and Cooking Kappa no. Kappa of different cooking
29Results and Cooking Kappa No. Kappa of different cooking
30Results and Pulp strength properties Tensile index of different cooking
31Results and Pulp strength properties Tensile index of different cooking
32CONCLUSIONS Major results are found High pulp yield in cooking Both high and low cooking kappa numberHigher strength pulp than reference pulp
33Conclusions AQ reduced the kappa 14.6 %. Urea increases both yield and Kappa. Yield and Kappa increased 9.5 % and 83.4 % respectively.Tensile index of this pulp was about 47 % higher than reference pulp.
34ConclusionsCombined effect of additive and surfactant does not change the result significantly.Synergetic effect of AQ and urea gives 9.4 % higher yield and 8 % higher Kappa than the reference cooking.
35Positive outcome from thesis AQ reduced the kappa 14.6 %.Urea increased yield 9.5 % and kappa 83.4 %Urea increased tensile index near about 50 %AQ + Urea increased yield 9.4 % and kappa 8 %
36RECOMMENDATIONS The future research should be extended to 1. Different alkali charges2. Lower sulphidity3. H- factors4. Liquor ratios5. Bleaching6. New practical applications7. Tests run in industrial scale