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Black liquor gasification – the fast lane to the biorefinery Ingrid Nohlgren Energy Technology Centre (ETC) Piteå, Sweden Energy Technology Centre (ETC)

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Presentation on theme: "Black liquor gasification – the fast lane to the biorefinery Ingrid Nohlgren Energy Technology Centre (ETC) Piteå, Sweden Energy Technology Centre (ETC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Black liquor gasification – the fast lane to the biorefinery Ingrid Nohlgren Energy Technology Centre (ETC) Piteå, Sweden Energy Technology Centre (ETC) Piteå, Sweden

2 Within a few years … 30% of Sweden’s automotive fuels may come from Swedish pulp mills 30% of Sweden’s automotive fuels may come from Swedish pulp mills Power production equivalent to that from a large river (1000 MW) may come from the mills Power production equivalent to that from a large river (1000 MW) may come from the mills Valuable chemicals synthesised from black liquor can give additional revenue to the mills Valuable chemicals synthesised from black liquor can give additional revenue to the mills The key is black liquor gasification technology The key is black liquor gasification technology

3 The Pulp Mill Wood chips Pulp Black Liquor Energy Biomass Energy

4 Black liquor Is a by-product from pulping (water, cooking chemicals, lignin and other wood components) Is a by-product from pulping (water, cooking chemicals, lignin and other wood components) Liquid biomass Liquid biomass Approx half the wood ends up in the black liquor Approx half the wood ends up in the black liquor Has a heating value of ~14 MJ/kg DS (Oil: ~42 MJ/kg) Has a heating value of ~14 MJ/kg DS (Oil: ~42 MJ/kg) Is smelly (sulphur compounds) Is smelly (sulphur compounds) … is renewable energy

5 Estimated black liquor production North America 350 TWh (Chemrec)

6 Illustration of Recovery Boiler Capacities in Europe = clusters of mills together having a large boiler capacity = important single mill

7 Today’s technology (Recovery boiler) Wood Yard Lime Kiln Pulping mill Evaporators Recovery Boiler White Liquor Pulp storage Fibre Line Liquor Cycle BL Storage Boiler Chips

8 The Recovery boiler is replaced by BLG Wood chips Pulp Black liquor energy Biomass BLGMF DME/MeOH

9 Addition of biomass to the system to balance the energy demand Wood chips Pulp Black liquor energy Biomass BLGMF DME/MeOH

10 The DP1 plant in Piteå ETC CHEMREC Kappa Kraftliner

11 DP-1 Plant

12 Tomorrow’s technology Raw gas GREEN LIQUOR Condensate BLACK LIQUOR GAS COOLER REACTOR QUENCH White liquor Feed water * LP-steam * MP-steam * Weak wash GASIFICATION GAS AND SMELT SEPARATION GAS COOLING AND CLEANING OXYGEN Atomising media Coolant SULFUR REMOVAL SHORT TIME CONTACTORS CLEAN, COOL SYNTHESIS GAS (to flare) * In DP1 cooling water Chemrec’s gasifier DP1 in Piteå, Sweden

13 Advantages compared to the Recovery boiler High quality synthesis gas with mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (ratio 1:1) High quality synthesis gas with mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide (ratio 1:1) Can be used directly as fuel for gas turbines Can be used directly as fuel for gas turbines Can be used for synthesis of motor fuels after additional cleaning and shifting of H2/CO Can be used for synthesis of motor fuels after additional cleaning and shifting of H2/CO No water vapour to the atmosphere (better efficiency) No water vapour to the atmosphere (better efficiency) Sulphur and sodium can be obtained in two separate streams (better process control = more paper) Sulphur and sodium can be obtained in two separate streams (better process control = more paper)

14 How much does it cost? Investment cost slightly higher than for the Recovery boiler Investment cost slightly higher than for the Recovery boiler ”Pay-off time” for the extra cost ≈ 2 years ”Pay-off time” for the extra cost ≈ 2 years The investment can only be done when it is time to replace the boiler The investment can only be done when it is time to replace the boiler But … the time is right since many of the boilers are old But … the time is right since many of the boilers are old

15 Year of construction for Scandinavian boilers Number of Recovery Boilers Norway Finland Sweden

16 Are tax subsidies necessary? Most other ”green” fuels must be subsidised to make them competitive (e.g. ethanol) Most other ”green” fuels must be subsidised to make them competitive (e.g. ethanol) The cost/km for methanol from black liquor would be about the same as for gasoline before tax The cost/km for methanol from black liquor would be about the same as for gasoline before tax Rising oil prices will be in favour of the black liquor alternative Rising oil prices will be in favour of the black liquor alternative Conclusion: Tax subsidies are not necessary in the future Conclusion: Tax subsidies are not necessary in the future However, subsidies may be necessary as an incentive for new investments However, subsidies may be necessary as an incentive for new investments

17 Automotive fuel cost (excl tax) Fuel Energy Content Eurocent per liter Eurocent per kWh Eurocent per kg Fuel cost per km 1) (Eurocent) Ethanol, from wheat 2) 5.90 kWh/liter Ethanol, from forestry feedstock 2) 5.90 kWh/liter ) – – 5.9 Methanol, 150 USD/ton Spot price average, Eur kWh/liter DME 215 USD/ton 5.27 kWh/liter Gasoline, 85 USc/gal 8.72 kWh/liter 22 2) City diesel, 85USc/gal 9.77 kWh/liter References: 1) Basic Data for “Jämförelseprojektet” (The Comparison Project), STEM, Dec-2001 Standard car, gasoline =3.4 MJ/ km Standard car, methanol, (=ethanol?)= 2.86 MJ/km  kWh/km Standard car, diesel =2.43 MJ/km 2) Ny Teknik (a weekly Swedish technology magazine), Nr 9, 28 Febr, 2002, sid ) Energiläget Swedish CO 2 tax at 0.53 SEK/kg CO 2 for fossil fuels corresponds for fossil methanol an extra cost of 70 USD/ton on top of the spot price 100 USD/ton.

18 Syngas Power $3.8 billion Or Liquid Fuels/Chemicals $5.5. billion O2O2  Pulp $5.5 billion  BL Gasifier  Wood Residual Gasifier  Combined Cycle System  Process to manufacture Liquid Fuels and Chemicals The Forest Biorefinery – Net Revenue Manufacturing CO 2  Extract Hemicelluloses  new products chemicals & polymers $3.3 billion Black Liquor & Residuals Net Revenue Assumptions: Acetic Acid - $1.73/gallonPurchased Electricity - $43.16/MWH Ethanol - $1.15/gallonExported Electricity - $40.44/MWH Pulp - $100/ton net profitRenewable Fischer Tropsch Fuel - $57/bbl Steam, Power & Chemicals

19 Crucial research issues Conversion of all organic carbon Conversion of all organic carbon ”High quality” green liquor ”High quality” green liquor Durable materials for containment Durable materials for containment Gas cleaning Gas cleaning Mill integration Mill integration Scale up from the DP1 scale (x15, x100) Scale up from the DP1 scale (x15, x100)

20 Activities in Piteå and at ETC ETC Coordinating National Research Effort: ETC Coordinating National Research Effort: ”Black liquor gasification Program” ”Black liquor gasification Program” Development plant under commissioning in Piteå (aiming for first syngas in Aug 2005) Development plant under commissioning in Piteå (aiming for first syngas in Aug 2005) 8 research projects 8 research projects Budget 100 MSEK (11 MEUR) Budget 100 MSEK (11 MEUR)

21 Collaborators – BLG program Raw material suppliers End users Researchers Process industry Governmental support

22 Summary Black liquor gasification is a key technology for: Black liquor gasification is a key technology for: Green power production Green power production Green automotive fuel production Green automotive fuel production Green chemicals production Green chemicals production Green fuel can be produced at the same cost as fossile fuels 2005 Green fuel can be produced at the same cost as fossile fuels 2005 Pulp mills are ideally suited to become biorefineries (infrastructure in place and large knowhow) Pulp mills are ideally suited to become biorefineries (infrastructure in place and large knowhow) Very strong research effort in Sweden Very strong research effort in Sweden First commercial gasifier (300 tds/day) expected around 2007 First commercial gasifier (300 tds/day) expected around 2007


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