Presentation on theme: "Review Questions Ch. 3 1. Maintain vital life processes. 2. Heat production of the animal while it is at rest and not digesting food. 3. Beating of the."— Presentation transcript:
Review Questions Ch Maintain vital life processes. 2. Heat production of the animal while it is at rest and not digesting food. 3. Beating of the heart, maintenance of blood pressure, transmission of nerve impulses, breathing, work of other internal organs. 5. Work of vital organs, nutrient utilization, normal activity, work, shivering.
Review Questions Ch The temperature at which an animal must increase the oxidation of nutrients to increase body temperature. Lower environmental temperature may require additional energy nutrients. 8. No. Some energy is lost through the feces, urine, and gases produced in the body.
Review Questions Ch Animals will require more energy in rations if the are pregnant, producing milk or at hard work. It is only after all the maintenance needs of the animal are met that energy nutrients can be used for growth, lactation and pregnancy. 10. Carbohydrates, fats and oils. 11. Carbohydrates, readily available, easily digested, generally lowest in cost.
Review Questions Ch Organic compounds, occur as compound substances in feed, a monosaccharide, of which glucose is the simplest form. 14. Simple sugars containing six carbon atoms. 18. Seeds, roots and tubers. 19. Fiber increases digestibility, yet it is low in palatibility, helps microbes, adds lubricants to the digestive system.
Review Questions Ch times. 22. Saturated: two hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atom at the end of the chain. Unsaturated: contains one or more pairs of double-bond carbon atoms from which the hydrogen atom has been removed.
Review Questions Ch Linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic. 24. Raise energy level of diet, improve flavor, texture, and palatability of feed. 25. Corn, barley, beet pulp. 27. Dried beet pulp; usually used in dairy cattle, adds bulk, makes rations more palatable, mild laxative.
Review Questions Ch Animal fat. 29. Can cause scouring, improves palatability, aids rumen microbial activity, reduces dust and adds sweet flavor. 30. Numbers 1-30 pg. 36 and 37.
Chapter 4 Livestock Nutrition Protein
Objectives Describe protein List sources of protein. Describe the functions of protein. Describe the symptoms of protein deficiency in the animal. Discuss non-protein nitrogen sources.
Proteins Long complex organic compounds that are formed when amino acids are combined with each other into polymers. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and sometimes phosphorus and iron. All proteins in the food chain originate from plants.
Proteins Digestion of plant protein by the animal provides the amino acids used in the body to form animal protein. Plant cell nucleus and protoplasm is mainly protein Most protein in plants is found in leaves, petioles and seeds.
Crude protein All of the nitrogenous compounds found in a feed. The nitrogen content of protein averages 16%. A commercial feed tag shos the guaranteed minimum crude protein content of the feed as a percent of the weight. Not all crude protein in a feed is digestible. 60% of a roughage ration is digestible % of a high concentrate ration is digestible.
Digestible protein A rations approximate amount of protein available for use by the animal. The difference between the protein content of the feed and what is found in the feces.
Crude Protein Because ruminants can utilize both protein and NPN through microbial action in the rumen, the use of crude protein value is valid and realistic when balancing ruminant rations. Non-ruminant animals cannot use the amides (NPN) as a substitute for the essential amino acids.
Amino Acids Organic acids containing one or more alpha-amino groups that form the building blocks of proteins. The average protein contains 100 or more amino acids. There are 20 to 22 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Amino acids are classified by the number of acidic and basic carboxyl groups.
Essential Amino Acids Those acids which must be provided in the ration of non-ruminant animals because the animals cannot synthesize them fast enough to meet their needs. Ruminant animals can generally synthesize the essential amino acids by rumen microbial action. Non-essential amino acids are synthesized in the body from other amino acids and therefore, do not have to be provided in the ration. There are 10 essential and 13 nonessential for swine and 14 for poultry.
Amino Acids The quality of a protein is related to its amino acid content. High quality protein have a good balance of the essential amino acids. Poor quality proteins are deficient in amount or balance of the essential amino acids. When feeding non-ruminant animals, the amino acid content of the protein is of greater importance than the percent of protein present in the feed.
Limiting amino acid The term for the essential amino acid that is present in the lowest amount in the feed. Essential amino acids are required in the ration in definite proportions. Amino acids may supplement each other when two different protein feeds have different amounts of a limiting amino acid. Because of this supplementary effect, it is recommended that more than one source of protein be supplied in the diets of non-ruminants.
Functions of Proteins An essential part of all living tissue. Needed for maintenance, finishing, work, and wool production, the greatest need is for growth, reproduction and lactation. No other nutrient can replace protein in the diet. Depending upon the species, the minimum level of protein needed in the ration ranges from 8 to 21 percent. More protein is required for younger animals. Protein requirements are also higher during the gestation and lactation periods than at other times.
Protein Deficiency A shortage of protein n the diet results in a variety of symptoms. Including depressed performance, higher production costs. Unthriftyness poor hair coat.
Dairy Cattle Limited amounts of protein is stored n the blood, liver and muscles of cattle. When a diet is deficient in protein, this reserve is quickly used up and signs of deficiency appear. During lactation the solids-not-fat content of the milk is reduced. Will lower immunity and reduce hormone secretions.
Beef Cattle Appetite depression, which results in reduced energy intake. Irregular or delayed estrus in breeding females. Loss of weight, slow growth and reduced milk production.
Sheep Also depresses appetite, reduces feed intake and resulting in an energy shortage. Poor growth rate, poor muscular development, and loss of weight. Wool production is lower and reproductive problems also appear. When the deficiency is drastic anemia will result.
Horses Depressed appetite is the primary indication of protein deficiency in horses. Mature horses will lose weight and young horse will grow slowly. Reduction in fertility in mares.
Swine Slows down growth. Increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Anemia, and increased fat concentration in the liver.
Protein as an Energy Source When excess protein is included in the diet the excess may be used as an energy source. The remaining material is used for energy need or stored as body fat. Protein feeds are more expensive than energy feeds therefore they are not as economical. Every effort should be made to have the correct balance of amino acids in the diet.
Unavailable Feed Protein Feed can lose protein due to improper storage. When calculating rations, adjustments must be made for this loss of protein.
Protein Solubility Poorly soluble crude protein when all silage rations are fed. Quickly attacked in the rumen by bacteria enzymes and degraded to simpler compounds. Byproduct concentrate feeds often contain a high level of soluble crude protein which makes them a poor choice in the ration when feeding silages.
Biological Value of Protein In feed, the percent of digestible protein that is retained by the animal for use is a measure of the biological value of the protein. A protein feed with a good balance of the essential amino acids will show less excreted protein,thus having a high biological value. Animal protein feeds have a higher biological value than plant proteins because they contain a better balance of amino acids.
Plant Protein Supplements Feeds that are high in amino acids. A protein supplement generally contains over 20% crude protein. Two groups of supplements, plant and animal origin. Protein supplements of the animal origin are considered to be of higher quality because they contain a better balance of the essential amino acids. Not all of the animal origin protein is superior.
Plant Protein Supplement The major source of plant protein supplements is oil seed byproducts. Soybean meal is the most used and economical, containing between 43-48% protein on a dry matter basis. Cottonseed and linseed meal are also important plant protein sources. Dehydrated alfalfa meal is also an important source of plant protein.
Fat Extraction Methods The three kinds of extraction methods are used; hydraulic, expeller and solvent. Hydraulic is a mechanical method, leaving a lot of the oil in the meal, rarely used today. The expeller method was developed for soybeans, mechanical, uses a screw press, still widely used in the cotton belt. Solvent, is a chemical process, used since 1940’s. Removes almost all of the fat, all soybean meal is being produced using the solvent method.
Soybeans as a Protein Source Soybeans average 37-38% protein and % fat. Should be no more than 20% of the total grain mix. Soybeans contain urease and antitrypsin. The release ammonia from urea, and prevent the effectiveness of the enzyme trypsin.
Urea A non-protein nitrogen compound that contains 45% nitrogen. Manufactured by combining atmospheric nitrogen with ammonia and carbon dioxide. Most common of the non-protein nitrogen sources used in ruminant rations. In beef cattle it can be used to provide all the supplemental protein needed for animals over 600 pounds.
Urea Not palatable and must be thoroughly mixed in the ration to be acceptable to the animal. Mixing urea with molasses increase its palatability.
Urea Toxicity Urea is a normal byproduct of protein metabolismin animals and is not toxic. However, the ammonia produced by mocrobe activity in the rumen may be toxic if more is released than can be completely utilized by the microbes. Two mechanisms operate to keep ammonia below a toxic level, one the conversion of ammonia to microbial protein, and two, the liver where ammonia is combined with carbon dioxide to form less toxic urea.
Nitrates/Nitrites Plants with a high accumulation of nitrates may have a toxic effect on livestock. Causes of high nitrate accumulation include excess levels of nitrate in the soil, dry conditions followed by inadequate soil moisture an imbalance in soil fertility. Annual grasses are more likely to accumulate excess nitrates.
Nitrates/Nitrites Cereal grains generally do not cause a nitrate problem. Symptoms include, poor appetite, slower gains, low production, watery eyes, rough hair coat and lower conception rate. Pinkeye and foot rot are secondary infections from nitrate poisoning. Supplementing Vitamin A can reduce the effects f nitrate poisoning. Monogastric animals are more tolerant of higher nitrate levels in the feed than are ruminants because there is less reduction of nitrate to nitrite by non-ruminants.
Other Non-protein Nitrogen Include ammoniated molasses, ammoniated beet pulp, ammoniated cottonseed meal, ammoniated citrus pulp, ammoniated rice hulls, ammonia in anhydrous (without water) or water form can be added to corn silage.The digestibility of straw and other low quality roughages is improved by the addition of ammonia.
Byproduct Feeds as Protein Brewers grain, Wheat bran, malt sprouts, beetpulp and cereal grain screenings. Beet pulp will improve palatibility. Wheat bran provides bulk and fiber. Whey is economical in dried or liquid form but is relatively low in protein.
Grass and Legume Forages Legume forages contain more protein than grass forages. Both are lower in protein than the oil meals. The crude protein content of forages is the best overall indicator of their feeding value in livestock rations. Forages harvested in the early stages of growth have a higher protein level than more mature forages.
Grain as a Protein Source Vary greatly in protein level, fed mainly as an energy source. Protein content of grains must be taken into account when formulating rations. Corn, the most fed grain in livestock rations is deficient in lysine. Deficiencies of amino acids in the grains are important in formulating rations.